Sunday, 26 October 2014

DON'T BE DICKENS!

5. MONITOR NOMINALIZATIONS
   
 Nominalizations eat the action verbs and drain the blood from adjectives.

     Nouns formed from other parts of speech are called nominalizations. They bog down your writing and impede clear communication. A paragraph heavily populated by nominalizations will send your reader straight to sleep. Wake them up with verb or adjective-driven sentences that are concrete, clearly structured and blissfully zombie-free.
1. Use Verb Instead of Noun
2. Use Verbs Instead of Nouns
3. Use Adjective Instead of Noun
4. Use Verb and Adjective Instead of Noun
5. Useful Nominalizations 

1. USE VERB INSTEAD OF NOUN

1. Announcement
Example: He made an announcement that he was getting married.
Better: He announced he was getting married.
2. Comparison
Example: He made a comparison between apples and oranges.
Better: He compared apples and oranges.
3. Decision
Example: He made a decision to leave.
Better: He decided to leave.
4. Definition
Example: His definition of fun was sleeping and watching television.
Better: He defined fun as sleeping and watching television.
5. Description
Example: Please give a description of the man who attacked you.
Better: Please describe the man who attacked you.
6.  Destruction
Example: The fire led to the destruction of the town.
Better: The fire destroyed the town.
7. Discussion
Example: We had a discussion concerning the proposed changes.
Better: We discussed the proposed changes.
8. Intention
Example: Our intention is to audit the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
9. Investigation
Example: The police conducted an investigation of the matter.
Better: The police investigated the matter.
10. Suggestion
Example: I offered a suggestion of a place to eat.
Better: I suggested a place to eat.
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

2. USE VERBS INSTEAD OF NOUNS

1. Analysis/Solution
Example: This paper gives an analysis of the problem and offers a solution.
Better: This paper analyzes and solves the problem.
2. Appearance/Cheers
Example: His appearance caused cheers from the crowd.
Better: He appeared and the crowd cheered.
3. Attempt/Failure
Example: His attempt at suicide was met with failure.
Better: He attempted suicide but failed.
4. Change/Thinking
Example: He needs to make a change in his thinking about relationships.
Better: He needs to change the way he thinks about relationships.
5. Definition/Resolution
Example: The team's role is to perform problem definition and resolution.
Better: The team's role is to define and resolve problems.
6. Encouragement/Success
Example: His encouragement helped my success.
Better: He encouraged me and I succeeded.
7. Expectation/Objection
Example: My expectation was that counsel would make an objection.
Better: I expected counsel to object.
8. Failure/Studying
Example: His failure was caused by not studying hard enough.
Better: He failed because he didn't study hard enough.
9. Intention/Audit
Example: Our intention is to perform an audit of the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
10. Transformation/Shock
Example: His transformation into an athlete caused shock among his peers.
Better: He transformed into an athlete and shocked his peers.
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

3. USE ADJECTIVE INSTEAD OF NOUN

1. Applicability
Example: This rule has lost its applicability.
Better: This rule is not applicable now.
2. Brilliance
Example: Not all posts achieve brilliance.
Better: Not all posts are brilliant.
3. Carelessness
Example: His carelessness in driving caused a multi-car accident.
Better: His careless driving caused a multi-car accident.
4. Cheerfulness
Example: Flowers added a note of cheerfulness to the drab room.
Better: Flowers made the drab room cheerful.
5. Difficulty
Example: This game has a high level of difficulty.
Better: This game is very difficult.
6. Ease
Example:  He thinks editing is a task you can do with ease.
Better: He thinks editing is easy.
7. Familiarity
Example: I have familiarity with those roads.
Better: I am familiar with those roads.
8. Intensity
Example: She has a high level of intensity.
Better: She is very intense.
9. Stupidity
Example: Don't show stupidity.
Better: Don't be stupid.
10. Susceptibility
Example: Susceptibility to the vanishing-ball illusion seems greater in individuals with ASD.
Better: Individuals with ASD are more susceptible to the vanishing-ball illusion.
                                                               Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

4. USE VERB AND ADJECTIVE INSTEAD OF NOUNS

1. Appreciation/Truthfulness
Example: I have had a appreciation of him because of his truthfulness.
Better: I appreciate him because he is truthful.
2. Belief/Ease
Example: It is his belief that editing can be done with ease.
Better: He believes editing is easy.
3. Carelessness/Death 
Example: Her carelessness caused his death.
Better: He died because she was careless.
4. Carelessness/Failure
Example: His carelessness caused his failure in the exams.
Better: He failed because he was careless.
5. Contempt/Ugliness
Example: She has a contempt for ugliness of things.
Better: She hates ugly things.
6. Happiness/Success 
Example: Her happiness was due to her success in the exams
Better: She was happy because she succeeded in the exams.
7. Laziness/Failure
Example: His failure was due to his laziness.
Better: He failed because he was lazy.
8. Negligence/Failure
Example: Negligence on the part of hospital workers was the reason for the failure of the kidney machine.
Better: The kidney machine failed because of negligent hospital workers.
9. Remembrance/Kindness
Example: I have a remembrance of your many kindness to me.
Better: I remember that you are very kind to me.
10. Sadness/Death
Example: The death of his friend caused his sadness.
Better: He was sad because his friend died.
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

5. USEFUL NOMINALIZATIONS 

     Not all nominalizations are bad -- indeed, some of them are necessary in good writing. Here are some occasions when you will want to use nominalization instead of a verb. 

1. Nominalizations work well as sentence transitions
(i) Electrical signals occur naturally between devices.
(ii) These occurrences happen only when the device is turned on.
2. Some nominalizations name ideas and concepts we can express only in nominalization
(i) Few issues have so divided us as abortion on demand.
(ii) A major issue in past elections was the equal rights amendment.
3. The nominalization names what would be the object of its verb
Example: I do not understand what she intends.
Better: I do not understand her intention.
4. The nominalization replaces awkward "The fact that".
Example: The fact that I denied what he accused me of impressed the jury.
Better: My denial of his accusations impressed the jury.
5. Some nominalizations are standard technical terms or a bit of insider talk
(i) Debt financing raises the rate of return on assets.
(ii) Standard deviation is a statistical measurement that sheds light on historical volatility. 
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)
EXERCISE

Q. De-nominalize the following sentences.
(i) We performed a review of the relevant regulations.
(ii) My recommendation is that we take this into consideration.
(iii) The design department will achieve the illustration of 100 books this year.
(iv) There was considerable erosion of the land of the farmers in the locale from the floods.
(v) The group's failure was the result of the way the chairman decided to submit his resignation.
(vi) Our expectation was to receive the data earlier.
(vii) Our expectation was to establish new tolerance levels in people.
(viii) There was an affirmative decision for program expansion.
(ix) The decision to construct a health science building was made by the university trustees.
(x) Approval is only given for projects that will have minimal impact on biodiversity values.
(xi) Upon your arrival at the premises, notify the receptionist.
(xii) The solution to the problem is to make changes to the regulations.
(xiii) The slider allows you to make an adjustment to the volume.
(xiv) The primary focus of this workshop is recent developments in computer scanning.
(xv) Before the commencement of the program, there was a brunch served for the guests.
(xvi) The importation of timber from endangered forests is a crime.
(xvii) They made a selection of the important books.
(xviii)  Scientists performed a test of the substance.
(xix) The quantification of the atoms was done.
(xx) The MS managed the measurement and identification of the proteins.
                                                             Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)