1. Redundant Adjectives
2. Redundant Adverbs
3. Redundant Nouns
4. Redundant Prepositions
1. REDUNDANT ADJECTIVES
2. Assemble together
3. Blend together
4. Clench tightly
Example: He clenched his teeth tightly.
Better: He clenched his teeth.
Example: When you combine together your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
Better: When you combine your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
Example: She completely finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
Better: She finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
13. Personally like
Example: I personally don't like wax museums.
Better: I don't like wax museums.
Example: He yelled loudly.
Better: He yelled.
3. REDUNDANT NOUNS
2. Ask the question
3. Cash money
Example: She did not carry much cash money but credit cards for shopping.
Better: She did not carry much cash but credit cards for shopping.
Example: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis situation.
Better: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis.
Example: She had come prepared for such an emergency situation, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
Better: She had come prepared of such an emergency, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
6. HIV virus
Example: HIV virus infects vital cells in the human immune system.
Better: HIV infects cells in the human immune system.
7. ISBN number
Example: The ISBN number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code.
Better: The ISBN is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code
9. Means and methods
Example: He used all means and methods to get his work done.
Better: He used all methods to get his work done.
10. Parts and components
Example: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts and components of a computer.
Better: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts of a computer.
11. PIN number
Example: PIN number is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
Better: PIN is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
13. Source and origin
Example: The sun is the biggest source and origin of heat and light.
Better: The sun is the biggest source of heat and light.
Example: Pregnant women who eat tuna fish can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
Better: Pregnant women who eat tuna can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
15. Use and implementation
Example: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use and implementation of it in her business.
Better: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use of it in her business.
Example: This action reflects back his true beliefs.
Better: This action reflects his true beliefs.
14. Retreat back
Example: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat back.
Better: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat.
15. Write down
Nouns formed from other parts of speech are called nominalizations. They bog down your writing and impede clear communication. A paragraph heavily populated by nominalizations will send your reader straight to sleep. Wake them up with verb or adjective-driven sentences that are concrete, clearly structured and blissfully zombie-free.
1. Use Verb Instead of Noun
5. Useful Nominalizations
1. USE VERB INSTEAD OF NOUN
Example: He made an announcement that he was getting married.
Better: He announced he was getting married.
Example: He made a comparison between apples and oranges.
Better: He compared apples and oranges.
Example: He made a decision to leave.
Better: He decided to leave.
Example: His definition of fun was sleeping and watching television.
Better: He defined fun as sleeping and watching television.
Example: Please give a description of the man who attacked you.
Better: Please describe the man who attacked you.
Example: The fire led to the destruction of the town.
Better: The fire destroyed the town.
Example: We had a discussion concerning the proposed changes.
Better: We discussed the proposed changes.
Example: Our intention is to audit the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
Example: The police conducted an investigation of the matter.
Better: The police investigated the matter.
Example: I offered a suggestion of a place to eat.
Better: I suggested a place to eat.
Example: This paper gives an analysis of the problem and offers a solution.
Better: This paper analyzes and solves the problem.
Example: His appearance caused cheers from the crowd.
Better: He appeared and the crowd cheered.
Example: His attempt at suicide was met with failure.
Better: He attempted suicide but failed.
Example: He needs to make a change in his thinking about relationships.
Better: He needs to change the way he thinks about relationships.
Example: The team's role is to perform problem definition and resolution.
Better: The team's role is to define and resolve problems.
Example: His encouragement helped my success.
Better: He encouraged me and I succeeded.
Example: My expectation was that counsel would make an objection.
Better: I expected counsel to object.
Example: His failure was caused by not studying hard enough.
Better: He failed because he didn't study hard enough.
Example: Our intention is to perform an audit of the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
Example: His transformation into an athlete caused shock among his peers.
Better: He transformed into an athlete and shocked his peers.
Example: This rule has lost its applicability.
Better: This rule is not applicable now.
Example: Not all posts achieve brilliance.
Better: Not all posts are brilliant.
Example: His carelessness in driving caused a multi-car accident.
Better: His careless driving caused a multi-car accident.
Example: Flowers added a note of cheerfulness to the drab room.
Better: Flowers made the drab room cheerful.
Example: This game has a high level of difficulty.
Better: This game is very difficult.
Example: He thinks editing is a task you can do with ease.
Better: He thinks editing is easy.
Example: I have familiarity with those roads.
Better: I am familiar with those roads.
Example: She has a high level of intensity.
Better: She is very intense.
Example: Don't show stupidity.
Better: Don't be stupid.
Example: Susceptibility to the vanishing-ball illusion seems greater in individuals with ASD.
Better: Individuals with ASD are more susceptible to the vanishing-ball illusion.
Example: I have had a appreciation of him because of his truthfulness.
Better: I appreciate him because he is truthful.
Example: It is his belief that editing can be done with ease.
Better: He believes editing is easy.
Example: Her carelessness caused his death.
Better: He died because she was careless.
Example: His carelessness caused his failure in the exams.
Better: He failed because he was careless.
Example: She has a contempt for ugliness of things.
Better: She hates ugly things.
Example: Her happiness was due to her success in the exams
Better: She was happy because she succeeded in the exams.
Example: His failure was due to his laziness.
Better: He failed because he was lazy.
Example: Negligence on the part of hospital workers was the reason for the failure of the kidney machine.
Better: The kidney machine failed because of negligent hospital workers.
Example: I have a remembrance of your many kindness to me.
Better: I remember that you are very kind to me.
Example: The death of his friend caused his sadness.
Better: He was sad because his friend died.
1. Nominalizations work well as sentence transitions
(ii) These occurrences happen only when the device is turned on.
2. Some nominalizations name ideas and concepts we can express only in nominalization
(i) Few issues have so divided us as abortion on demand.
(ii) A major issue in past elections was the equal rights amendment.
3. The nominalization names what would be the object of its verb
Example: I do not understand what she intends.
Better: I do not understand her intention.
4. The nominalization replaces awkward "The fact that".
Example: The fact that I denied what he accused me of impressed the jury.
Better: My denial of his accusations impressed the jury.
5. Some nominalizations are standard technical terms or a bit of insider talk
(i) Debt financing raises the rate of return on assets.
(ii) Standard deviation is a statistical measurement that sheds light on historical volatility.
Q. De-nominalize the following sentences.
(i) We performed a review of the relevant regulations.
(ii) My recommendation is that we take this into consideration.
(iii) The design department will achieve the illustration of 100 books this year.
(iv) There was considerable erosion of the land of the farmers in the locale from the floods.
(v) The group's failure was the result of the way the chairman decided to submit his resignation.
(vi) Our expectation was to receive the data earlier.
(vii) Our expectation was to establish new tolerance levels in people.
(viii) There was an affirmative decision for program expansion.
(ix) The decision to construct a health science building was made by the university trustees.
(x) Approval is only given for projects that will have minimal impact on biodiversity values.
(xi) Upon your arrival at the premises, notify the receptionist.
(xii) The solution to the problem is to make changes to the regulations.
(xiii) The slider allows you to make an adjustment to the volume.
(xiv) The primary focus of this workshop is recent developments in computer scanning.
(xv) Before the commencement of the program, there was a brunch served for the guests.
(xvi) The importation of timber from endangered forests is a crime.
(xvii) They made a selection of the important books.
(xviii) Scientists performed a test of the substance.
(xix) The quantification of the atoms was done.
(xx) The MS managed the measurement and identification of the proteins.
1. MAKE THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE PLURAL
1. He -- They
Example: When a student writes a paper, he must proofread carefully.
Better: When students write papers, they must proofread carefully.
2. SUBSTITUTE A NOUN SUBJECT INSTEAD OF A PRONOUN
1. him - the writer
Example: Ask him to define the thesis.
Better: Ask the writer to define the thesis.
3. AVOID GENERIC AND OCCUPATIONAL USE OF 'MAN'
Although MAN in its original sense carried the dual meaning of adult human and adult male, its meaning has come to be so closely identified with adult male that the generic use of MAN and other words with masculine markers should be avoided.
Avoid the use of MAN in occupational terms when person holding the job could be either male or female. .
1. Chairman -- Chairperson
Example: At our department meeting yesterday, our chairman talked about how the department as a whole was doing.
Better: At our department meeting yesterday, our chairperson talked about how the department as a whole was doing.
2. Sportsman -- Sports person
3. Businessman -- Business person
4. Craftsman -- Craft person
5. Saleswoman -- Sales person
6. Spokesman -- Spokes person
7. Cameraman -- Camera person
8. Congressman -- Congress person
9. The common man -- The common person
Man --- humankind or people
Policeman --- police officer
cattleman --- cattle rancher
workman --- worker
newspaperman --- journalist
foreman --- shift boss
clergyman --- clergy person or clergy
fisherman --- crew member or fishes folk
clansman --- clan member
ombudsman --- consumer advocate
cavemen --- cave dwellers or prehistoric people
chairman/chairwoman --- chair or presiding officer
fireman --- fire fighter
stewardess --- flight attendant
waitress/waiter --- server, food server
mail man --- mail carrier
The active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive.
Example: My first visit to Boston will always be remembered by me.
Better: I shall always remember my first visit to Boston.
1. Dividing the Words at Line-ends
If there is room at the end of a line for one or more syllables of a word, but not for the whole word, divide the word, unless this involves cutting off only a single letter, or cutting off only two letters of a long word. No hard and fast rule for all words can be laid down. The principles most frequently applicable are:
(a) Divide the word according to its formation.
(i) know-ledge (not knowl-edge)
(ii) Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare)
(iii) de-scribe (not des-cribe)
(iv) atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere)
(b) Divide "on the vowel"
(i) edi-ble (not ed-ible)
(viii) classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions possible)
(c) Divide between double letters, unless they come at the end of the simple form of the word.
(iii) refer-ring but
(d) The treatment of consonants in combination is best shown from examples.
(v) sub-stan-tial (either division)
1. CHOOSE THE RIGHT PEN
(i) Ballpoint pen is a better choice for adults. It has a 'quick-dry' ink and so saves your paper from smudges. It is the best choice for left-handed students.
(ii) Ballpoint pens are often easier to write with because they have more 'grip' on the paper. Moreover, you can write on any paper without caring your nib getting clogged with fibers.
(iii) The point size of your ballpoint pen should be 8 mm or below. The ink colour should be blue. The shape and size is your own choice.
(iv) Use felt-tip marker pen with blue ink for writing topics, headings, subheadings and important words, and for drawing lines and margins etc.
2. HOLD THE PEN CORRECTLY
(ii) Place the thumb pad to one side of the pen. Place the index finger on top of the pen. Rest the pen on the first joint of your middle finger. This finishes off the tripod hold.
(iii) Hold the pen in the bottom 1/3. The end of the pen should rest either the web of your hand or against the knuckle of your index finger.
(iv) All pressure should evenly be distributed among three fingers --- the index, middle, and thumb. The angle of the pen to the paper should be about 45 degrees.
3. PICK THE RIGHT PAPER
(i) Write on lined paper, but make sure the lines are not too narrow. A legal size paper which has 11/32 (8.7 mm) spacing between horizontal lines is best for practice.
(ii) A thick pad may distort your posture, so tear a few pages out or use a thinner pad. Don't use notebooks with a spiral binding.
(iii) Page orientation also matters. The two most common types of orientation are portrait and landscape. Portrait paper is better for writing.
4. Check your posture
(i) Sit with your back straight, feel flat on the floor, legs uncrossed. Relax your hand and arm. Shake your hand until it feels floppy. Breath.
(ii) Many students curve their arm around the page while writing, but handwriting benefits from sitting up straight, with your forearm resting on the table, so that the arm moves the fingers rather than the wrist.
5. Look for a slant
The angle at which you write your letter can make or break your writing. Is your handwriting perpendicular to the lines under it? Does it fall to the left or to the right significantly? A slight slant is typically not a problem, but to much of one can make reading difficult.
6. Check the alignment
Do your words tend to be written on an upwards or downwards angle? Do they overlap with the lines on the page? Is every word individually angled, or do your entire lines of text head in similar direction away from the line?
7. Look at the spacing
The distance between your words and letters helps determine the quality of your handwiting. There should be enough space between each word to fit the letter "O". Using more or less space than this can be an indicator of poor handwriting. Pay attention also to the closeness of each individual letter. Cramped writing or letters that are spaced far apart are also difficult to read.
8. Pay attention to the size
Turns out size does matter, at least with handwriting. Does your writing fill up the entire space between two lines? Can you write all your words in less than half the space between two lines? Taking up a large amount of space or using too little are both things to avoid.
9. Write in the air
Most of the time, people with poor or illegible handwriting simply haven't properly trained the correct muscle groups in their hands, arms, and shoulders. Avoid "drawing" letters with your hand, and instead write by moving your entire arm up to the shoulder. To practice doing this, the easiest thing is to write sentences in the air using your finger. This forces you to use the muscle groups in your arm and shoulder that help to improve handwriting and keep it from looking messy or cramped.
10. Practice the basic shapes
A consistent flaw in poor handwriting is irregularity and inconsistency between letters and shapes. All the letters are made up out of straight lines and circles or semi-circles, so put in some time drawing these. Fill an entire sheet of paper with parallel vertical lines, and parallel diagonal lines. Do the same with a sheet of 'o' shapes as well. When you can consistently make the same line over and over, you are ready to move onto complete letters.
|Instead of ...||Try using ...|
|aka||also known as|
|ASAP||as soon as possible, soon [or be specific about time]|
|could've, should've, would've||could have, should have, would have|
|e.g.||for example, such as|
|etc.||and so on, and the rest|
|hi, lo||high, low|
|lb., oz.||pound, ounce|
|mightn't, mustn't||might not, must not|
|n.a., N/A||not applicable, not available, none|
Quotation marks and other punctuation marks.1. Do commas, periods, etc., go inside or outside of quotation marks? In so-called American Preferred Style, the answer is straightforward. Commas and periods always go inside quotation marks. Always. Without exception. Colons and semicolons always go outside quotation marks. And question marks and exclamation points vary according to whether they are logically part of the quoted material. This rule may seem illogical (it evidently developed as a way of saving space in typesetting); but it remains the preferred rule.
2. You must cite all ideas that are not your own -- not just when you are quoting but also when you are paraphrasing. Otherwise it is plagiarism.
3. Write a one-sentence opinion based on each of the subjects below: