2. Elements of Style

 "I believe more in the scissors than I do in the pencil" 
                                                                   (Truman Capote) 
     Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. Getting rid of unnecessary words will make your writing clearer and more effective. Be ready and strangle the following redundancies.
1. Redundant Adjectives
2. Redundant Adverbs
3. Redundant Nouns
4. Redundant Prepositions


"When you catch an adjective, kill it. No, I don't mean utterly, 
but kill most of them -- then the rest will be valuable."
(Mark Twin)
1. Actual facts
Example: Listen to the actual facts of the case.
Better: Listen to the facts of the case.
2. Advance warning
Example: The storm hit with no advance warning.
Better: The storm hit with no warning.
3. Armed gunman
Example: An armed gunman robbed the bank today.
Better: A gunman robbed the bank today.
4. Basic necessities
Example: Prepare for disasters by stocking basic necessities.
Better: Prepare for disaster by stocking necessities.
5. Current trend
Example: Some say blogging is a current trend that won't last.
Better: Some say blogging is a trend that won't last.
6. Final conclusion
Example: He came to a final conclusion that he hated his job.
Better: He came to a conclusion that he hated his job.
7. Foreign imports
Example: He believes foreign imports hurt our country's economy.
Better: He believes imports hurt our country's economy.
8. Frozen ice
Example: He fell through the frozen ice.
Better: He fell through the ice.
9. Future plans
Example: What are your future plans for college?
Better: What are your plans for college?
10. General public
Example: The portable bathrooms are for the general public.
Better: The portable bathrooms are for the public.
11. Joint collaboration
Example: The joint collaboration between state and federal agencies failed.
Better: The collaboration between state and federal agencies failed.
12. Mutual cooperation
Example: We need mutual cooperation to succeed.
Better: We need cooperation to succeed.
13. New invention
Example: The new invention would change the world.
Better: The invention would change the world.
14. Past experience
Example: My past experiences are what made me who I am today.
Better: My experiences are what made me who I am today.
15. Personal opinion
Example: It is just my personal opinion.
Better: It is just my opinion.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


"I believe the road to hell is paved with adverbs........".
                                                                                  (Stephen King, On Writing)

1. Advance forward
Example: The army advanced forward.
Better: The army advanced.
2. Assemble together
Example: Assemble together the parts included in the box.
Better: Assemble the parts included in the box.
3. Blend together
Example: The colours blend together nicely.
Better: The colours blend nicely.
4. Clench tightly
Example: He clenched his teeth tightly.
Better: He clenched his teeth. 
5. Combine together
Example: When you combine together your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
Better: When you combine your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
6. Completely destroy
Example: Aslam completely destroyed his room.
Better: Aslam destroyed his room.
7. Completely finished
Example: She completely finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
Better: She finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
8. Connect together
Example: Connect together the two wires.
Better: Connect the two wires.
9. Eradicate completely
Example: We must eradicate completely these roaches.
Better: We must eradicate these roaches.
10. May possibly
Example: She may possibly get the job.
Better: She may get the job.
11. Meet together
Example: The two roads meet together at the traffic circle.
Better: The two roads meet at the traffic circle.
12. Originally created
Example: Nobody truly knows when the world was originally created.
Better: Nobody truly knows when the world was created.
13. Personally like
Example: I personally don't like wax museums.
Better: I don't like wax museums.
14. Still persist
Example: If symptoms still persist, call you doctor.
Better: If symptoms persist, call your doctor.
15. Yell loudly
Example: He yelled loudly.
Better: He yelled.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


The addition of a generic noun after a specific noun is a redundancy; it weakens the specific noun. 

1. Alternative choice
Example: He had no alternative choice but to fight.
Better: He had no alternative but to fight.
2. Ask the question 
Example: Ask the question to your teacher. 
Better: Ask your teacher.
3. Cash money
Example: She did not carry much cash money but credit cards for shopping.
Better: She did not carry much cash but credit cards for shopping. 
4. Crisis situation
Example: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis situation.
Better: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis. 
5. Emergency situation
Example: She had come prepared for such an emergency situation, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
Better: She had come prepared of such an emergency, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
6. HIV virus
Example: HIV virus infects vital cells in the human immune system.
Better: HIV infects cells in the human immune system.
7. ISBN number
Example: The ISBN number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code. 
Better: The ISBN is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code
8. Later time 
Example: Call me at a later time.
Better: Call me later.
9. Means and methods
Example: He used all means and methods to get his work done.
Better: He used all methods to get his work done.
10. Parts and components
Example: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts and components of a computer.
Better: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts of a computer.
11. PIN number
Example: PIN number is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
Better: PIN is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
12. Present time
Example: He is not available at the present time.
Better: He is not available at present.
13. Source and origin
Example: The sun is the biggest source and origin of heat and light.
Better: The sun is the biggest source of heat and light.
14. Tuna fish
Example: Pregnant women who eat tuna fish can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
Better: Pregnant women who eat tuna can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
15. Use and implementation
Example: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use and implementation of it in her business.
Better: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use of it in her business.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


Many English verbs are not followed by prepositions. 
1. Add up
Example: Add up your hours and see if you qualify for overtime.
Better: Add your hours and see if you qualify for overtime.
2. Ascend up
Example: Ascend up the steps to reach the top.
Better: Ascend the steps to reach the top.
3. Enter in
Example: Enter in your name and email address.
Better: Enter your name and email address.
4. Fall down
Example: If you fall down, try again.
Better: If you fall, try again.
5. Heat up
Example: Heat up the soup.
Better: Heat the soup.
6. Kneel down
Example: Kneel down before God Almighty.
Better: Kneel before God Almighty.
7. Lift up
Example: Lift up the weight.
Better: Lift the weight.
8. Penetrate into
Example: The bullet can easily penetrate into the wood.
Better: The bullet can easily penetrate the wood.
9. Plunge down
Example: The stock market plunged down today.
Better: The stock market plunged today.
10. Pouring down rain
Example: The pouring down rain ruined the picnic.
Better: The pouring rain ruined the picnic.
11. Protest against
Example: You must protest against tyranny.
Better: You must protest tyranny.
12. Raise up
Example: Raise up the flag.
Better: Raise the flag.
13. Reflect back
Example: This action reflects back his true beliefs.
Better: This action reflects his true beliefs.
14. Retreat back
Example: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat back.
Better: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat.
15. Write down
Example: Write down your name on this sheet of paper.
Better: Write you name on this sheet of paper.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

Q. Revise the following sentences to eliminate redundancy. 
(i) Detective search for the true facts is an investigation. 
(ii) The consensus of opinion on the basic fundamentals created the shortest meeting of the year. 
(iii) Even though she had performed the operation a numerous number of times, she still reviewed the basic essentials each ad every day. 
(iv) The first priority appears to be to group together the children than live in close proximity to one another. 
(v) The local residents filled to capacity the new auditorium as they waited to hear the developer recount the past history of the archaeological site. 
(vi) Advance planning can avoid total destruction of a historical site. 
(vii) The accident totally severed the boy's arm. 
(viii) Physical aerobic exercise is recommended for healthy hearts. 
(ix) Modern antiques that have been made recently have been offered at high prices. 
(x) Last of all, I would like to completely finish this exercise before I go to bed. 
(xi) Although my future plans are uncertain, I intend to adhere to my basic and fundamental belief that humans were meant to be lazy. 
(xii) Astonished, the natives stared at the automobile in amazement. 
(xiii) People pay good money and spend hard-earned dollars for labour-saving devices to save time from their busy lives. 
(xiv) Mall researchers often interview and talk to many people who are respondents for their surveys. 
(xv) In a very real sense, the side effects of today's medical discoveries have created many health complications, including results that are not related to drug's purpose. 
(xvi) In point of fact, people who fail to have success in their careers frequently give up too easily and are not tenacious in sticking to their goals. 
(xvii) Thanks to their joint collaboration, the archaeologists found the handwritten manuscript in the destroyed ruins of the monastery.   
(xviii) Her handbag was square in shape. 
(xix) It is usually his custom to visit the houses of the affluent rich. 
(xx) The group wanted to climb up the very summit at the top of the mountain. 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

 Nominalizations eat the action verbs and drain the blood from adjectives.

     Nouns formed from other parts of speech are called nominalizations. They bog down your writing and impede clear communication. A paragraph heavily populated by nominalizations will send your reader straight to sleep. Wake them up with verb or adjective-driven sentences that are concrete, clearly structured and blissfully zombie-free.
1. Use Verb Instead of Noun
2. Use Verbs Instead of Nouns
3. Use Adjective Instead of Noun
4. Use Verb and Adjective Instead of Noun
5. Useful Nominalizations 


1. Announcement
Example: He made an announcement that he was getting married.
Better: He announced he was getting married.
2. Comparison
Example: He made a comparison between apples and oranges.
Better: He compared apples and oranges.
3. Decision
Example: He made a decision to leave.
Better: He decided to leave.
4. Definition
Example: His definition of fun was sleeping and watching television.
Better: He defined fun as sleeping and watching television.
5. Description
Example: Please give a description of the man who attacked you.
Better: Please describe the man who attacked you.
6.  Destruction
Example: The fire led to the destruction of the town.
Better: The fire destroyed the town.
7. Discussion
Example: We had a discussion concerning the proposed changes.
Better: We discussed the proposed changes.
8. Intention
Example: Our intention is to audit the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
9. Investigation
Example: The police conducted an investigation of the matter.
Better: The police investigated the matter.
10. Suggestion
Example: I offered a suggestion of a place to eat.
Better: I suggested a place to eat.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


1. Analysis/Solution
Example: This paper gives an analysis of the problem and offers a solution.
Better: This paper analyzes and solves the problem.
2. Appearance/Cheers
Example: His appearance caused cheers from the crowd.
Better: He appeared and the crowd cheered.
3. Attempt/Failure
Example: His attempt at suicide was met with failure.
Better: He attempted suicide but failed.
4. Change/Thinking
Example: He needs to make a change in his thinking about relationships.
Better: He needs to change the way he thinks about relationships.
5. Definition/Resolution
Example: The team's role is to perform problem definition and resolution.
Better: The team's role is to define and resolve problems.
6. Encouragement/Success
Example: His encouragement helped my success.
Better: He encouraged me and I succeeded.
7. Expectation/Objection
Example: My expectation was that counsel would make an objection.
Better: I expected counsel to object.
8. Failure/Studying
Example: His failure was caused by not studying hard enough.
Better: He failed because he didn't study hard enough.
9. Intention/Audit
Example: Our intention is to perform an audit of the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
10. Transformation/Shock
Example: His transformation into an athlete caused shock among his peers.
Better: He transformed into an athlete and shocked his peers.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


1. Applicability
Example: This rule has lost its applicability.
Better: This rule is not applicable now.
2. Brilliance
Example: Not all posts achieve brilliance.
Better: Not all posts are brilliant.
3. Carelessness
Example: His carelessness in driving caused a multi-car accident.
Better: His careless driving caused a multi-car accident.
4. Cheerfulness
Example: Flowers added a note of cheerfulness to the drab room.
Better: Flowers made the drab room cheerful.
5. Difficulty
Example: This game has a high level of difficulty.
Better: This game is very difficult.
6. Ease
Example:  He thinks editing is a task you can do with ease.
Better: He thinks editing is easy.
7. Familiarity
Example: I have familiarity with those roads.
Better: I am familiar with those roads.
8. Intensity
Example: She has a high level of intensity.
Better: She is very intense.
9. Stupidity
Example: Don't show stupidity.
Better: Don't be stupid.
10. Susceptibility
Example: Susceptibility to the vanishing-ball illusion seems greater in individuals with ASD.
Better: Individuals with ASD are more susceptible to the vanishing-ball illusion.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


1. Appreciation/Truthfulness
Example: I have had a appreciation of him because of his truthfulness.
Better: I appreciate him because he is truthful.
2. Belief/Ease
Example: It is his belief that editing can be done with ease.
Better: He believes editing is easy.
3. Carelessness/Death 
Example: Her carelessness caused his death.
Better: He died because she was careless.
4. Carelessness/Failure
Example: His carelessness caused his failure in the exams.
Better: He failed because he was careless.
5. Contempt/Ugliness
Example: She has a contempt for ugliness of things.
Better: She hates ugly things.
6. Happiness/Success 
Example: Her happiness was due to her success in the exams
Better: She was happy because she succeeded in the exams.
7. Laziness/Failure
Example: His failure was due to his laziness.
Better: He failed because he was lazy.
8. Negligence/Failure
Example: Negligence on the part of hospital workers was the reason for the failure of the kidney machine.
Better: The kidney machine failed because of negligent hospital workers.
9. Remembrance/Kindness
Example: I have a remembrance of your many kindness to me.
Better: I remember that you are very kind to me.
10. Sadness/Death
Example: The death of his friend caused his sadness.
Better: He was sad because his friend died.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


     Not all nominalizations are bad -- indeed, some of them are necessary in good writing. Here are some occasions when you will want to use nominalization instead of a verb. 

1. Nominalizations work well as sentence transitions
(i) Electrical signals occur naturally between devices.
(ii) These occurrences happen only when the device is turned on.
2. Some nominalizations name ideas and concepts we can express only in nominalization
(i) Few issues have so divided us as abortion on demand.
(ii) A major issue in past elections was the equal rights amendment.
3. The nominalization names what would be the object of its verb
Example: I do not understand what she intends.
Better: I do not understand her intention.
4. The nominalization replaces awkward "The fact that".
Example: The fact that I denied what he accused me of impressed the jury.
Better: My denial of his accusations impressed the jury.
5. Some nominalizations are standard technical terms or a bit of insider talk
(i) Debt financing raises the rate of return on assets.
(ii) Standard deviation is a statistical measurement that sheds light on historical volatility.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


Q. De-nominalize the following sentences.
(i) We performed a review of the relevant regulations.
(ii) My recommendation is that we take this into consideration.
(iii) The design department will achieve the illustration of 100 books this year.
(iv) There was considerable erosion of the land of the farmers in the locale from the floods.
(v) The group's failure was the result of the way the chairman decided to submit his resignation.
(vi) Our expectation was to receive the data earlier.
(vii) Our expectation was to establish new tolerance levels in people.
(viii) There was an affirmative decision for program expansion.
(ix) The decision to construct a health science building was made by the university trustees.
(x) Approval is only given for projects that will have minimal impact on biodiversity values.
(xi) Upon your arrival at the premises, notify the receptionist.
(xii) The solution to the problem is to make changes to the regulations.
(xiii) The slider allows you to make an adjustment to the volume.
(xiv) The primary focus of this workshop is recent developments in computer scanning.
(xv) Before the commencement of the program, there was a brunch served for the guests.
(xvi) The importation of timber from endangered forests is a crime.
(xvii) They made a selection of the important books.
(xviii)  Scientists performed a test of the substance.
(xix) The quantification of the atoms was done.
(xx) The MS managed the measurement and identification of the proteins.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


1. He -- They
Example: When a student writes a paper, he must proofread carefully.
Better: When students write papers, they must proofread carefully.
1. him - the writer
Example: Ask him to define the thesis.
Better: Ask the writer to define the thesis.

Although MAN in its original sense carried the dual meaning of adult human and adult male, its meaning has come to be so closely identified with adult male that the generic use of MAN and other words with masculine markers should be avoided.
Avoid the use of MAN in occupational terms when person holding the job could be either male or female. .
1. Chairman -- Chairperson
Example: At our department meeting yesterday, our chairman talked about how the department as a whole was doing.
Better: At our department meeting yesterday, our chairperson talked about how the department as a whole was doing.
2. Sportsman -- Sports person
3. Businessman -- Business person
4. Craftsman -- Craft person
5. Saleswoman -- Sales person
6. Spokesman -- Spokes person
7. Cameraman -- Camera person
8. Congressman -- Congress person
9. The common man -- The common person
Man --- humankind or people
Policeman --- police officer
cattleman --- cattle rancher
workman --- worker
newspaperman --- journalist
foreman --- shift boss
clergyman --- clergy person or clergy
fisherman --- crew member or fishes folk
clansman --- clan member
ombudsman --- consumer advocate
cavemen --- cave dwellers or prehistoric people
chairman/chairwoman --- chair or presiding officer
fireman --- fire fighter
stewardess --- flight attendant
waitress/waiter --- server, food server
mail man --- mail carrier


Never use the passive where you can use the active.
                                                                                                  (George Orwell)

The active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive.
Example: My first visit to Boston will always be remembered by me.
Better: I shall always remember my first visit to Boston.


1. Dividing the Words at Line-ends
     If there is room at the end of a line for one or more syllables of a word, but not for the whole word, divide the word, unless this involves cutting off only a single letter, or cutting off only two letters of a long word. No hard and fast rule for all words can be laid down. The principles most frequently applicable are:
(a) Divide the word according to its formation.
(i) know-ledge (not knowl-edge)
(ii) Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare)
(iii) de-scribe (not des-cribe)
(iv) atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere)
(b) Divide "on the vowel"
(i) edi-ble (not ed-ible)
(ii) propo-sition
(iii) ordi-nary
(iv) espe-cial
(v) reli-gious
(vi) oppo-nents
(vii) regu-lar
(viii) classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions possible)
(ix) deco-rative
(x) presi-dent
(c) Divide between double letters, unless they come at the end of the simple form of the word. 
(i) Apen-nines
(ii) Cincin-nati
(iii) refer-ring but
(iv) tell-ing
(d) The treatment of consonants in combination is best shown from examples.
(i) for-tune
(ii) pic-ture
(iii) presump-tuous
(iv) illus-tration
(v) sub-stan-tial (either division)
(vi) indus-try
(vii) instruc-tion
(viii) sug-ges-tion
(ix) incen-diary



The pen is mightier than the sword if the sword is very short, and the pen is very sharp. 
                                                                                                                             (Terry Pratchett) 

(i) Ballpoint pen is a better choice for adults.  It has a 'quick-dry' ink and so saves your paper from smudges. It is the best choice for left-handed students.
(ii) Ballpoint pens are often easier to write with because they have more 'grip' on the paper. Moreover, you can write on any paper without caring your nib getting clogged with fibers.
(iii) The point size of your ballpoint pen should be 8 mm or below. The ink colour should be blue. The shape and size is your own choice.
(iv) Use felt-tip marker pen with blue ink for writing topics, headings, subheadings and important words, and for drawing lines and margins etc.


To hold a pen is to be at war. 

(i) Bend all five fingers slightly. Avoid making a fist --- a small ball should be able to slide into the cupped hand shape. Otherwise, the grip will be too tight and restrictive.
(ii) Place the thumb pad to one side of the pen. Place the index finger on top of the pen. Rest the pen on the first joint of your middle finger. This finishes off the tripod hold. 
(iii) Hold the pen in the bottom 1/3. The end of the pen should rest either the web of your hand or against the knuckle of your index finger.
(iv) All pressure should evenly be distributed among three fingers --- the index, middle, and thumb. The angle of the pen to the paper should be about 45 degrees.


(i) Write on lined paper, but make sure the lines are not too narrow. A legal size paper which has 11/32 (8.7 mm) spacing between horizontal lines is best for practice.
(ii) A thick pad may distort your posture, so tear a few pages out or use a thinner pad. Don't use notebooks with a spiral binding.
(iii) Page orientation also matters. The two most common types of orientation are portrait and landscape. Portrait paper is better for writing.

4. Check your posture
(i) Sit with your back straight, feel flat on the floor, legs uncrossed. Relax your hand and arm. Shake your hand until it feels floppy. Breath.
(ii) Many students curve their arm around the page while writing, but handwriting benefits from sitting up straight, with your forearm resting on the table, so that the arm moves the fingers rather than the wrist.
5. Look for a slant
The angle at which you write your letter can make or break your writing. Is your handwriting perpendicular to the lines under it? Does it fall to the left or to the right significantly? A slight slant is typically not a problem, but to much of one can make reading difficult.
6. Check the alignment
Do your words tend to be written on an upwards or downwards angle? Do they overlap with the lines on the page? Is every word individually angled, or do your entire lines of text head in similar direction away from the line?
7. Look at the spacing
The distance between your words and letters helps determine the quality of your handwiting. There should be enough space between each word to fit the letter "O". Using more or less space than this can be an indicator of poor handwriting. Pay attention also to the closeness of each individual letter. Cramped writing or letters that are spaced far apart are also difficult to read.
8. Pay attention to the size
Turns out size does matter, at least with handwriting. Does your writing fill up the entire space between two lines? Can you write all your words in less than half the space between two lines? Taking up a large amount of space or using too little are both things to avoid.
9. Write in the air
Most of the time, people with poor or illegible handwriting simply haven't properly trained the correct muscle groups in their hands, arms, and shoulders. Avoid "drawing" letters with your hand, and instead write by moving your entire arm up to the shoulder. To practice doing this, the easiest thing is to write sentences in the air using your finger. This forces you to use the muscle groups in your arm and shoulder that help to improve handwriting and keep it from looking messy or cramped.
10. Practice the basic shapes
A consistent flaw in poor handwriting is irregularity and inconsistency between letters and shapes. All the letters are made up out of straight lines and circles or semi-circles, so put in some time drawing these. Fill an entire sheet of paper with parallel vertical lines, and parallel diagonal lines. Do the same with a sheet of 'o' shapes as well. When you can consistently make the same line over and over, you are ready to move onto complete letters.

Practice, practice, practice - the more you write the better you will get. 

Use acronyms and abbreviations carefully

Remember that not everyone may know what the acronyms and abbreviations stand for. Avoid nonessential abbreviations, Latin abbreviations, uncommon contractions and obscure acronyms, especially in documents that may be translated for or used by readers with limited English proficiency. Also, avoid informal nonstandard spellings and shortened words.
Sometimes, putting an acronym or abbreviation in parentheses the first time you use the proper term can be useful. Then you can use the acronym in the rest of your text. But even if you use that technique, avoid filling a document with various obscure acronyms. Also see abbreviations and acronyms in the King County Editorial Style Manual.
When in doubt, spell it out.
Here are other examples:
Instead of ...Try using ...
akaalso known as
ASAPas soon as possible, soon [or be specific about time]
could've, should've, would'vecould have, should have, would have
e.g.for example, such as
etc.and so on, and the rest
i.e.that is
hi, lohigh, low
lb., oz.pound, ounce
mightn't, mustn'tmight not, must not
n.a., N/Anot applicable, not available, none
reprepetition, representative
that'llthat will
vetveteran, veterinarian

Quotation marks and other punctuation marks.

1. Do commas, periods, etc., go inside or outside of quotation marks? In so-called American Preferred Style, the answer is straightforward. Commas and periods always go inside quotation marks. Always. Without exception. Colons and semicolons always go outside quotation marks. And question marks and exclamation points vary according to whether they are logically part of the quoted material. This rule may seem illogical (it evidently developed as a way of saving space in typesetting); but it remains the preferred rule.

2. You must cite all ideas that are not your own -- not just when you are quoting but also when you are paraphrasing.   Otherwise it is plagiarism. 

3.    Write a one-sentence opinion based on each of the subjects below:
laughter   Only truly happy people laugh a lot.
art   Art is a frivolous study for those who pursue the sciences.
fear   Even the most courageous people have a sense of fear.
apples Apples should be a part of every child’s school lunch. 
grades Grade and test scores alone should not be used to gain college admission.
fashions Todays fashions promote increased promiscuity among teenagers.
drag racing  Drag racing promotes safety among car enthusiasts.
popularity Teenagers are more concerned about popularity than their academics.
shoes  Closed-toe shoes should be required in all schools.