3. Data for Essay Writing

1. EDUCATION
  

2. POLITICAL SCIENCE


3. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


4. BOOKS AND LITERATURE


5. MASS MEDIA

     The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Major mass media are as following:
1. Print (Newspapers)
2. Print (Books)
3 Print (Others) 
4. Recordings
5. Cinema
6. Radio
7. Television
8. Internet
9. Mobile phones

1. PRINT (NEWSPAPERS)
1. Article: A piece of writing on a particular subject included with others in a newspaper, magazine, or other publication.
2. Editorial: An article or column in a newspaper or magazine written by the editor or under his or her direction, giving opinions about a subject or event.
3. Banner: Print media term for the headline of a story of unusual importance, stretching over the entire width of the page.
4. Byline: An identification line, usually printed at the beginning of an article, of the journalist or reported who is responsible for the story.
5. Column: A article in a newspaper or magazine that appears on a regular basis, and that is usually written by the same person, usually on the same subject.
6. Correspondent: A journalist or reporter who regularly reports on a particular area of information, usually from the same geographical area.
7. Doorstepping: The practice of journalists to pressure an individual who is an unwilling source of information standing outside the person's home or office, or asking questions as the person walks by.
8. Ear: A box in the top corner of the front page of a newspaper, used for advertising or weather information.
9. Newspaper: A print publication issued daily, weekly, or at regular times that provides news, features, information of interest to the public, and advertising.
10. Acta diurna: The first known newspaper, written on a tablet, which reported on matters of public interests in ancient Rome, after 27 b.c.e.
11. Checkbook journalism: The practice of paying money to get an exclusive story that will purportedly sell many copies of a newspaper or magazine and/or bring prestige upon the journalist.
12. City desk: The newspaper section devoted to financial topics and/pr local news. The newspaper editor who is  for city desk is called city editor.

2. PRINT (BOOKS)
1. Autobiography: Biography of a person written by himself or herself. The term probably was coined by the British Romantic poet Robert Southey in 1809.
2. Bibliography: A list of books, articles, etc., consulted and thus considered to be pertinent to a given subject.
3. Book: A collection or assemblage of pages held together in some way and containing verbal text and sometimes figures and illustrations.
4. Allegory: A literary work in which the characters and events symbolize spiritual, moral, or political meanings or ideas. For example, Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan.
5. Anthology: Collection of various works taken from a specific genre within a medium (for example, essays, poems, sitcoms, or documentaries)
6. Best seller: A product such as a book, compact disc, etc., that sells very well, often shortly after it is published or issued.

3. PRINT (OTHERS)
1. Journal: A magazine or periodical that deals with an area of special or specialized interest, generally published by a professional body for its members.
2. Magazine: A newspaper-like publication, but smaller in size, issued at regular intervals, containing a collection or articles or stories or both.
4. RECORDINGS
1. Album: Recording of music that is issued and marketed as a single product, e.g., a record album or a CD album.

5. CINEMA
1. Bollywood: A name for the Indian popular film industry, based in Mumbai (Bombay). It is more formally referred to as Hindi cinema.
2. Cinema: An art industry or business of making movies developed originally from the technology of moving pictures.
3. Chick flick: A film that is intended or perceived to appeal primarily to women, given its romantic or sentimental plot, or its focus on human relationships or the changing role of women in society.
4. Hollywood: A district in the central region of Los Angeles, California, in the United States. It became the centre of the movie industry by 1915.
5. Auteur: A filmmaker or director who is perceived as having a unique personal style or approach to film-making and who takes complete control over all aspects of films production.
6. CinemaScope: A brand name for an early widescreen projection system for movies, developed in 1953 by Twentieth Century Fox.
7. Cinerama: A trade name for a method, introduced in the 1950s, of producing early widescreen movies with enhanced three dimensional effects like CinemaScope.

6. RADIO
1. AM radio [abbreviation of amplitude modulation radio]: Radio broadcasting system based on a carrier wave of constant frequency but of varying amplitude.
2. Broadcast radio: A radio programming reaching mass audience. Experimental radio broadcasts began around 1910, when Lee De Forest produced a radio program in New York City.

7. TELEVISION
1. Al Jazeera: Influential satellite television channel, based in Qatar and launched in 1996, that broadcasts in Arabic. Al Jazeera came to international notice after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
2. British Broadcasting Corporation: One of the first broadcasting systems established in British invasion on 1992 in the United Kingdom. The BBC is a noncommercial broadcasting system.
3. Breaking news: An unplanned news coverage of an event that is in the process of unfolding or has only recently happened.
4. Broadcast television: A television programming reaching mass audiences. Experimental telecasts took place in the late 1920s and the 1930s.
5. Cable network: A television network that consists of channels distributed by companies to paying subscribers (usually by transmitting signals via cables, rather than through the air)
6. Cable News Network [CNN]: An international news broadcasting company, based in the United States and founded in 1980, which was the first to introduce 24-hour news coverage.
7. Clandestine stations: The illegal or unlicensed broadcast stations operated by clandestine groups or agencies (revolutionary subcultures, intelligence agencies, etc.)

8. INTERNET
1. Blog: A regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is written in an informal or conversational style.
2. Browser: A computer program with a graphical user interface for displaying HTML files, used to navigate the World Wide Web and to download Web files, e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox etc.
3. Chat room: An area on the Internet or other computer network where users can communicate in real time, typically one dedicated to a particular topic.
4. Facebook: A online social networking site, founded in 2004, where personal profiles can be posted. Website: www.facebook.com
9. MOBILE PHONES 
1. Cell phone: A wireless phone that can make and receive telephone calls via radio signals. The first hand-held cell phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973.

10. TERMS FOR ALL MEDIA
1. Audience: Any group of people exposed to media. Some audience such as those for sports events are physically present and other audiences such as those for novels, television are not.
2. Blockbuster: A thing of great power or size, in particular a film, book, or other product that gains widespread popularity and achieves enormous sales.
3. Celebrity: A person who is widely known primarily because of media exposure. A celebrity is usually an actor, a television personality, a pop musician, etc.
4. Censorship: The control of what people may say, hear, write, or read. In most cases, this kind of control comes from a government agency or from various types of private groups.
5. Circulation: The average number of copies distributed of some publication citizen journalism (newspaper, magazine, etc.) during a given period.







89. Classified ad: A small notice, usually on a special page of a newspaper or magazine, indicating that something is wanted or offered (a job, an apartment, a pet, a car, etc).
90. Cliche: A word or phrase that has lost its original effectiveness through overuse: for example, All's well that end's well; Father Time; Mother Nature; lips sweeter than wine.
91. Cliffhanger: A story, play, or motion picture that depends on strong and sustained suspense for its dramatic interest.
92. Climax: The most intense, exciting, or important point of something; the culmination. The point at which a narrative, performance, etc., takes a decisive turn.
93. Clip art: A commercially produced artwork, usually copyright-free, available on-line and through many digital products (such as CD-ROMs), that can be used to enhance presentations of text.
95. Comedy: The form of drama or entertainment that deals with humorous or ridiculous aspects of human behavior comics.
96. Comic Book: A magazine using cartoon characters. Most tell stories, though they have also been used for education, artistic expression, and other purposes.
97. Comic relief: The interlude inserted on introduced in a serious literary work, play, movie, etc., designed to provide relief from tension through humour.
98. Commercial: A radio, television, or Internet advertisement. Commercials were first developed for radio in the 1920s.
99. Communication: The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, or using some other medium. The communication may be gestural, vocal or signaling.
100. Communications: In media studies, communications refers to the study of providing information and entertainment through media such as newspapers, magazines, radios, televisions, telephones, computers, etc.
101. Communications gap: The misunderstanding caused by a failure in communication between different individuals or cultural groups who do not share a common reference system (language, set of values, etc.)
102. Compassion fatigue: The diminution or loss of sympathy on the part of an audience for a group or cause because of overexposure by the media.
103. Conceit: An amusing or imaginative expression that connects things that are perceived to be dissimilar: for example, my life is a barnyard.
104. Confidentiality: The practice of media professionals to keep secret the names of those who provide them with information.
105. Conglomeration: The process by which one individual, group, or organization buys up media systems or outlets.
106. Connotation: An idea or feeling which a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning.
107. Constituency: The specific readership of a newspaper of magazine. The implication is that the political views of the readership are shaped by the newspaper or magazine.
108. Contributed contend Web site: A website that allows visitors to add contributions to its content. Two well known contributed content websites are; www.wikipedia.com and www.urbandictionary.com.
109. Copyright: The exclusive right held by the creators of original works to reproduce, distribute copies of, perform publicly, or display their original work, or to create derivative works based on the original.
111. Credits: The names of photographers, camera persons, costume designers, etc, who were part of the production team; often broadcast at the end of a film or program.
112. Creole: A language that evolves from contact with other language, become the native language of a community (Haitian Creole, Guyanese Creole, etc.)
113. Criticism: The examination of literary, artistic, or media texts in terms of their aesthetic worth, their social import, their style, their genre characteristics, and so on.
114. Crossover: A media product that was made for one medium, but that gains popularity in another; for example, a novel such as The Godfather that is known more in its movie form than in its book form.
115. Cultural proximity: The desire of people to see or hear media products from the comfort of their own cultural backgrounds.
116. Cybernetics: The science that studies communication in living organisms, computers, and organizations. The science was founded in 1948 by Norbert Wiener.
117. Cyber terrorism: The terrorism that employs the Internet to communicate with fellow terrorists and to enter the communication systems of targets in order to destroy them.
118. Dactylogy: The communication by signs made with fingers, especially as practiced by people who are speech impaired.
119. Daily Me: A news Web site that lets users tailor contents to their linking. The Website is: www.DailyMe.com
120. Dead spot: A geographic area where radio or television reception is poor, even though it falls within the usual range of the transmitter.
121. Decipher: In literary and media studies, to determine the meaning of a complex or ambiguous text (to decipher a novel, to decipher a movie, etc.)
122. Defensive communication: A message that recipients will intentionally misinterpret or reject because it jars with their own values, beliefs, or worldview.
123. Demonization: The undermining of a person or group by the media, usually by means of an attack on personal characteristics of an individual (or the leader or members of a group).
124. Desensitization: The process through which audiences, as a result of viewing portrayals of violence of degradation in the media, are thought to become insensitive to violence and suffering in real life.
125. Detective story: A work of fiction that centers on a crime, featuring a detective who will solve the crime by questioning suspects, putting together clues, and eventually hunting down the perpetrator.
126. Dialect: The variant of a language used by a particular group of speakers. Dialects may arise from geographic or social factors.
127. Dictum: An authoritative saying or pronouncement. Those who ignore history are condemned to repeat it.
128. Digest: A compilation of articles, stories, reviews from different sources, brought together in a magazine, book, or broadcast, often in summarized or condensed form.
129. Digital galaxy: A notion that digital technologies have changed the ways in which people communicate and interact.
130. Digital service line[DSL]: A line providing access to the Internet that is faster than the previous dial-up modem devices.
131. Diglossia: The use of different forms of the same language or, sometimes, of different languages in the same speech area, one of which is sometimes considered more important or functional than the other.
132. Director: A person who plans and controls the performance of a play, a motion picture, or a show on television, radio, or the Internet.
133. Disco music: A flamboyant, dance oriented popular music genre that emerged in the 1970s. Disco music was emblemized by the 1977 movie Saturday Night Fever.
134. Docudrama: The dramatization of real-life events (such as the sinking of the Titanic) through film, radio, or television.
135. Documentary: A nonfictional movie or program dealing with events or issue doo-wop in a factual manner, including interviews, film footage, and other types of information.
136. Docusoap: A documentary that follows the lives of real people at home, work, play, and other locales, resembling the style of a fictional soap opera ads and other promotional strategies.
138. Drama: A play, usually serious in tone, for theatre, radio, or television. There are four forms of drama; tragedy, serious drama, melodrama and comedy.
139. Dramaturgy: The art of drama, referring to both the actual dramas and how they are staged and the analysis of drama in all its dimensions. (from the script to the performance).
140. Dubbing: Adding music, voice, or sound effects to a film, a broadcast ,or a recording by making a new sound track. Or recording a sound track in a different language.
142. Editing: Altering texts of any kind to make them clearer, more appropriate, or more effective by correcting, condensing, or otherwise modifying for publications.
144. Edutainment: A blend of education and entertainment. Any media product or text that both educates and entertains.
145. Effigy: A dummy made to represent a hated person or group, used to critique, affront, or insult the person or group.
146. Electronic book: A digital book having the appearance of a traditional paper book but with its content stored digitally. E-books can be updated from a bookstore or a Web site that sells them.
147. Electronic journalism: The publication of news that occurs on the Internet or in some other electronic broadcast medium.
148. Electronic mail: A mail sent from one computer to another via Internet. To send and receive e-mail messages, an individual must have an e-mail address.
149. Ellipsis: The omission of a word or words necessary for making a complete grammatical construction, because the construction can be understood in the context in which it occurs.
150. Encyclopedia: A reference work (paper, electronic) giving information on all or specific types of knowledge. For example Wikipedia; www.wikipedia.org
151. Enterprise fiction: A literary genre of fictional works, written primarily by women, revolving around the theme of female triumph in a male-dominated world through hard work and determination.
152. Epic: A lengthy narrative poem or song telling about the deeds of heroes and the gods. For example; Odyssey by Homer, The Prelude by William Wordsworth.
153. Epigram: A short, usually witty poem or saying. In ancient Greece, epigrams were inscribed often on statues, buildings and the like.
154. Epithet: A descriptive word or phrase used in place of the actual name of someone, highlighting an attribute or feature of his or her personality; for example, egghead for "a smart person".
155. Euphemism: A word or phrase used in place of another because it is considered less offensive or discordant: for example, pass away for die; vomit for throw up.
156. Fable: A story designed to impart a moral lesson or a verity about human life; the characters are often animals or mythical creatures who are given human traits.
158. Facial expression: An appearance assumed by the face, unconsciously or wittingly, to communicate something (usually an emotional state). These include winking, smiling, grimacing, and the like.
159. Fairy tale: A story revolving around fairies or other imaginary supernatural beings who become involved in human affairs using magic. For example: Tales of Mother Goose by Charles Perrault.
160. Fan: A person with a strong liking for or interest in a performer, program, even or sport. A fan is an enthusiastic devotee usually as a spectator.
161. Fantasy: A literary genre that features imaginary or magical worlds, characters, and events, usually intended for children. For example, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll.
162. Farce: A comedy genre intended to evoke laughter through caricature by placing characters in improbable or ludicrous situations. For example, The Bear by Anton Chekhov.
163. Fax/Facsimile: A device allowing the electronic transmission of printed or pictorial documents across telephone lines or through wireless technology from one location to another.
164. Fellinesque: A film or media text that blends reality and fantasy, reminiscent of the methods of Federico Fellini, the renowned Italian motion feminist theory picture director.
165. Femme fatale: A female character in movies and other media of great seductive charm who leads men into compromising or dangerous situations ow who destroy those who succumb to her charms.
166. Fiction: Any work whose content is imaginary rather than purely factual. The fabliaus, romances, and novellas of the Middle Ages were the forerunners of the novel, the first true fiction genre.
167. FM radio [frequency modulation radio]: A system of radio transmission in which wave frequencies are modulated in tandem with the audio signal being transmitted. It was established in 1936.
168. Folk music: A music style consisting of a people's traditional songs and melodies. Folk music is typically of unknown authorship and is transmitted orally from generation to generation.
169. Folktale: A narrative tale, usually created in early oral traditions; example include myths, legends, fables, and fairy tales.
170. Forecast: A prediction of what the weather will be like in the near future, broadcast or printed regularly on radio, on television, in newspapers, on Websites.
171. Freedom of expression: The basic right of any free society, with which, it is claimed, journalists, academics, and others cannot perform their vital role of seeking and spreading new knowledge.
172. Gallery: A television studio production room where the director and the members of the production crew sit during filming or taping.
173. Gatekeepers: In media studies, those who make the decisions regarding what will appear in media and especially which items are newsworthy and which are not.
174. Gesture: The movement of the body, especially the hands, to communicate something, unconsciously or wittingly. Illustrators, Emblems, Affect displays, Regulators and Adaptors are all gestures.
175. Global village: A term coined by Marshall McLuhan to characterize a world that is united electronically, in a virtual (or cybernetic) village.
176. Glossary: An alphabetical list of glosses, often placed at the end of a work or a section of the work (such as at the end of a chapter)
177. Gonzo journalism: A style of journalism that is more concerned with such things as the reporter's relation to the story or the emotional effect on the people involved in the story rather than the actual facts.
178. Google: The largest Internet search engine, founded in 1998, which has an index of over 10 billion Web pages. www.google.com
179. Gotcha journalism: The news reporting in which journalists nab evildoers or interview people caught in some illegal act.
180. Green room: A small room near a broadcast studio in which program guests wait before they are interviewed or where actors can go to rest.
181. Hieroglyphic: The ancient Egyptian writing system, originating around 3000 b.c.e., based on stylized pictorial symbols.
182. Hit: A record, play, movie, or other creative product that has become a success with both audiences and critics.
184. Homophily: A situation in which interlocutors share the same values, ideas, beliefs, and worldview during dialogue, conversation, or other form of verbal communication.
185. House organ: A magazine published by a company for its employees and clients, containing information about the company, its products, and its employees.
186. Hype: An exaggerated publicity strategy for a movie, a program, a product, or a spectacle, designed to create excitement.
187. Hyperbole: An exaggerated statement used for effect and not meant to be taken literally: for example, Waves as high as mountains hit the beach.
188. Hyper reality: The simulation of reality in media, perceived by some commentators as more authentic than actual reality.
189. Idiolect: An individual's manner of speaking, including pronunciation patterns, tone of voice, and typical choice of words.
190. Idiom: An expression that cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its words, but in its totality; to be born with a silver spoon in one'e mouth; to go on a wild goose chase.
191. Illusion: A form (drawing, figure, photo) that produces an erroneous perception. People are typically fooled into seeing AB as longer than CD, even though it is not.
192. Illustration: A picture, figure, or diagram used to explain or decorate something, especially written text (a book, newspaper, etc)
193. Imagery: The use of figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses. For example; It was dark and dim in the forest.
194. Indicator: Any nonverbal cue used during conversation, such as a frown, scratching the head, folding the arm, nodding, etc.
195. Infoholic: An individual who has become obsessed with information, seeking it out constantly, especially on the Internet.
196. Information blizzards: The information overload to which people are exposed by media, which is difficult to digest and reflect upon.
197. Internet: A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.
198. Intimization: A technique of making a news story more appealing by adapting it to reflect widely held views of beliefs on the part of audiences.
199. Intranet: A private computer network, providing members with Internet and World Wide features, such as e-mail and Web Pages.
200. Irony: An amusing or subtly mocking phrase or statement in which the literal meaning stands in opposition to the intended meaning.
201. Jargon: The specialized vocabulary used typically by members of a profession or line of work. For example, perorbital hematoma = black eye, in medicine.
203. Journalism: The activity or profession of writing for newspapers or magazines or of broadcasting news on radio or television.
204. Journalist: A person whose job is to write for a newspaper or magazine, or to prepare news for radio, television, or Web broadcasting.
205. Kinesics: The study of body language, that is, postures, gestures, touch patterns, and the like and the messages that they convey during human interaction.
206. Language: The method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.
207. Leased channels: In cable television, channels that allow customers to buy time for producing their own programs or for presenting their own viewpoints.
208. Linguistics: The scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of grammar, syntax, and phonetics.
209. Lip synchronization: A technique of mouthing a recorded statement or a song without actually speaking or singing, giving the illusion that one is performing it alive.
210. Lurking: An act of reading newsgroup posting or chat room conversations without participating or actively contributing.
212. Mainstream media/Mass Media: The dominant, powerful media organizations, such as the major newspapers and television networks that reach large audiences.
213. Manuscript: A book, document, or piece of music written by hand rather than typed or printed. Now, it also refers to any computer-generated document.
214. Marquee: A sign over the entrance of a theater or other venue that displays the name of the featured event and/or performers.
215. Mass communication: The imparting or exchanging of information on a large scale to a wide range of people.
216. Maxim: A concise statement or saying, perceived as expressing some inherent truth: for example, Look before you leap, Two heads are better than one.
217. Media: The main means of mass communication (newspapers, radio, television, Internet) regarded collectively.
218. Melodrama: A narrative work (often in serial form) characterized by emotional conflicts among the characters.
219. Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a work or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable. For example: The professor is a snake.
220. Metonymy: A figure of speech standing for something of which it is a part: for example, the press for journalists and newspapers; wheels for journalists.
221. Mimicry: The action or skill of imitating other people's voices, gestures, and appearance, especially in order to entertain or ridicule.
222. Mobile phone: A portable phone with access to a cellular radio system so it can be used over a wide area, without physical connection to a network.
223. Modulation: A system designed to increase the frequency of signals. The two main types of modulation are called amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM).
224. Motion picture/Movie/Film: A series of still photographs on film, projected in rapid succession onto a screen, giving the impression of continuous motion.
225. Movie trailer: A series of extracts from an upcoming film or television program, used for advance publicity.
226. Muckraking: An investigative journalism that aims to uncover crime, corruption, or scandal about famous people.
227. Multimedia: The computer system that allows the used to manipulate and use different types of media, such as text, sound, video, graphics, and animation.
228. Multimedia messaging service[MMS]: A system that allows for the transmission of audio, images, and animation in text messages.
229. Multimodality: The use of several channels to access the same information; for example, accessing cinema listings through the press, by phone, and on the Internet.
230. MySpace: An online social networking site founded in 2003 where personal profiles and blogs can be posted.
231. Myth: A traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining a natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural being or events.
232. Narrative: Any account (story, myth, tale, fable, etc) that connects a sequence of events involving characters in certain situations that are usually resolved by the end.
233. Navigation: An activity of going from Web site to Web site on the Internet, either to search for something specific or else simply to find our what is on the Internet.
234. Neologism: A newly coined word or phrase that has not been generally accepted yet, such as digiform (a blend of digital and form).
235. Netlingo [Netspeak]:  The forms of language used in chat rooms, text messages, social networking sites, and the like. For example: b4 = before, gr8 = great, lol = laughing out aloud.
236. News: A report of a current happening or happenings in a newspaper, on television, on radio, or on a Web site.
238. Nonverbal communication: The process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. (facial expressions, gestures, postures etc)
239. Novel: A fictitious prose narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism.
240. Objective journalism: The journalism that aims to present the news without opinion or bias. Objective journalism, sadly, does not exist.
241. Obscenity: Any act, writing, depiction, or representation that is deemed to be deeply offensive or to violate community standards of morality and decency.
242. Onomatopoeia: The use or creation of words imitating the sounds to which they refer. For example, buzz, swoosh, drip, bang.
243. Opera: A theatrical play with all or most of its text, known as the libretto, set to music and choreographed in some way.
244. Optical character recognition [OCR]: A device that can recognize text characters and save them as a text document.
245. Organizational communication: A system of communications set up among organizations (banks, government agencies, and the like) that is not (generally) open to the public.
246. Orkut: An online social networking site run by Google and founded in 2004 that allows people to communicate and form interest groups. Website: www.orkut.com
247. Oxymoron: A figure of speech that combines contradictory idea. For example, deafening silence, sweet noise, pleasing pain, etc.
248. Painting: A picture drawn or made using paint (or some other substance) on a two-dimensional surface. The art of creating pictures or drawing is also called painting.
249. Palindrome: A word, phrase, sentence, or numeral that reads the same in either direction (front to back, back to front). For example: pop; race car; Madam I'm Adam.
250. Pamphlet: A small folded booklet or leaflet containing information or arguments about a single subject. It is often produced to promote a social cause or political issue.
251. Panel: A brief text separated from the body of the main text by lines above and below, usually highlighting some aspects of the main text.
252. Pantomime: The telling of a story without word, by means of bodily movements, gestures, and facial expressions. accompanied by music.
253. Parable: A simple and short story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson, as told by Jesus in the Gospels.
254. Paradox: A seemingly absurd or contradictory statement or proposition which when investigated may prove to be well founded or true.
255. Parallelism: Any statement made up of parts that parallel on mirror each other semantically. For example: I am the president, the country's leader am I.
256. Paraphrase: Any rewording or summary of something, usually to explain it: for example: going on a wild goose chase can be paraphrased as pursuing something foolish.
257. Parchment: A stiff, flat, thin material made from the prepared skin of an animal, usually a sheep or goat, and used as a durable writing surface in ancient and medieval times.
258. Pathetic fallacy: The attribution of human feeling to inanimate things. For example, the angry skies, a stubborn computer, etc.
259. Pen name/Pseudonym: A fictitious name used by an author instead of his or her real name. For example, the British novelist Mary Ann Evans concealed her femininity with the pen name of George Eliot.
260. Periodical: A publication that is issued at regular intervals, including newspapers, magazines, journals, and the like.
261. Personification: The portrayal or characterization of inanimate objects, animals, or ideas as if they were people or possessed human characteristics. For example, My computer is sick today.
262. Phonetics: The branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of speech and their production, combination, description, and representation by written symbols.
263. Phonology: The study of the sounds in a language and how they are used in the formation of words and other structures.
264. Picaresque novel: A novel revolving around the episodic adventures of a rogue or adventurer who is portrayed as drifting from place to place in order to survive.
265. Piracy: The unauthorized duplication, distribution, or broadcasting of copyrighted or patented material for profit.
266. Poem: A piece of writing, usually in verse form, that is more song like, using more emotionally suggestive language than ordinary speech or prose.
267. Pop music: The music intended to be appreciated by ordinary people, usually intended to provide entertainment and pleasure, and including such genres as jazz, swing, rhythm and blues, rock, and rap.
268. Pornography: The printed or visual material containing the explicit description or display of sexual organ or activity, intended to stimulate sexual excitement.
269. Poster: An appealing print announcement or advertisement that is displayed publicly to promote a product, even, or idea.
270. Post-production: The final stage in the making of a recording, film, or television program, involving editing, dubbing, and other special effects.
271. Pragmatics: The branch of linguistics dealing with language in use and the contexts in which it is used. It deals with who says what to whom in specific situations.
272. Press: The entirety of media and agencies that collect, publish, transmit, or broadcast the news. Press is also a company that publishes books.
273. Producer: A member of a film team, a television program, or radio show responsible for general supervision and financing.
274. Prose:  A written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure. For example, novels, essays, reviews, critiques, and the like are all written in prose.
275. Proverb: A traditional saying that expresses an intrinsic truth or else gives practical advice. For example, Don't count your chickens before they're hatched.
276. Publishing: The occupation of activity of preparing and issuing books, journals, and other material in print or electronic form for sale.
278. Pun: A play on the different senses of the same word or else on the senses or sounds of different words. For example, Dee Light is a delight; The analyst is called Anna List.
279. Qualified privilege: A legal right allowing reporters and journalists to report judicial or legislative proceedings even though statements made in the proceedings may be libelous.
280. Quiz show: A radio or television show designed to test the knowledge, luck, or skill of contestants or experts.
281. Radio: The transmission of sounds converted into electromagnetic waves directly through space to a receiving device, which converts them back into sounds.
282. Realism: The quality or fact of representing a person or thing in a way that is accurate and true to life. Guy de Maupassant, Anton Chekhov, George Eliot and Mark Twin are realist writers.
283. Reality show: A genre of television programming that presents purportedly unscripted situations, featuring ordinary people instead of professional actors.
284. Recording: A permanent copy of sounds or visual images on a disc, CD, DVD, or other device. It is also the action or process of recording sound or a performance for subsequent reproduction or broadcast.
285. Reference: The use of a source of information in order to ascertain something. It is usually a note in publication referring the reader to another passage or source.
286. Reference work: A dictionary, encyclopedia, atlas, or other written or electronic work to which one can refer for confirmed facts.
287. Reflection theory: A view that language mirrors the things it represents in some way (through imitation of its sound properties, through allusion to its appearance, etc)
288. Register: A type of language that fits into a particular social situation. Would you be so kind as to tell me where you live? (high/formal register); Hey, where do you live? (low/informal register).
289. Remote control: A device that operates a system from a distance. Remote control systems include television sets, garage door openers, robots, and spacecrafts.
290. Repertoire: A stock of plays, songs, dances, or items that a company or a performer knows or is prepared to perform.
291. Replay: An event or occurrence recorded (on tape, video) and played again (as in a sports program) to highlight the event (such as a goal that was scored).
292. Resonance: A positive reaction that a view has to a television broadcast or other media event because it corresponds closely to his or her experiences or expectations, thus reinforcing them.
293. Reuters: A trade name for a London news agency, founded in 1851 by German journalist Paul Reuter, that provides international news. Website: www.reuters.com
294. Rhetoric: The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the exploitation of figures of speech and other compositional techniques.
295. Rhyme: The correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, especially when these are used at the ends of lines of poetry. For example, some and come; win and sin.
296. Rhythm: A regular recurrence of similar beats in language forms (such as poetry) and music, in alternation with each and combined into some pattern.
297. Riddle: A linguistic puzzle playing on word meanings. The old riddle known is the so-called Riddle of the Sphinx: What is it that has four feet in the morning, two at noon, and three at night? (human being)
298. Ritual: A religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order.
299. Royalty: A sum paid to a patentee for the use of a patent or to an author or composer for each copy of a book sold or for each public performance of a work.
300. Running head: A heading printed on every page, or every other page, of a book, indicating its title or a chapter or section title.
301. Sarcasm: The mocking or satirical language. For example, How slim you look these days! (uttered to someone who has put on weight)
301. Satire: A literary, dramatic, or cinematic work that ridicules someone or something, for example, the TV sitcom The Simpsons is considered a satire of American culture.
302. Science fiction: A literary and cinematic genre in which the science of the future is portrayed as having impacts of various kinds (psychological, social) on human beings.
303. Screen test: An audition for a film or television role in which various actors are asked to play the role briefly in order to assess which one is best suited for it.
304. Search engine: A program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user, for finding particular sites on the World Wide Web.
305. Semantics: The study of meaning in language in all its dimensions, including word meaning, phrase meaning, sentence meaning, utterance meaning, etc.
306. Semiotics: The study of signs and their uses in human life. Semiotics has become an important part of media analysis, used especially to decode the meanings of ads, programs, and the like.
307. Short message service[SMS]: The communication protocol for text messages, sent in real time among computer or cellular phone users.
308. Short story: A short prose fiction with a fully developed theme but significantly shorter and less elaborate than a novel. It usually ranges from 1,000 to 20,000 words.
309. Signature: In electronic communication, a piece of text that is pasted automatically onto an e-mail newsgroup posting.
310. Simile: A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g. as brave as a lion)
311. Slang: A type of language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people.
312. Soliloquy: An act of speaking one's thoughts aloud whey by oneself or regardless of any hearers, especially by a character in a play.
313. Spoiler: A print publication (newspaper or magazine) that is released at the same time as a rival publication in order to divert interest from it.
314. Stand-in: Any actor replacing another actor in a film or program, usually when the action is dangerous and the stand-in is trained specifically to participate in it.
315. Stereo: Any electronic audio playback system that is capable of reproducing high-quality sound that comes from various directions (usually through speakers)
316. Stream of consciousness: A literary device in which the reader is exposed to the thoughts and feelings of a character as they unfold. The term was coined by William James.
317. Stunt double: A person who takes the place of a screen actor in scenes that involve danger or require special physical skills.
318. Subscription: The money paid to media outlet (newspaper, magazine, Website, satellite television) to receive media products on a regular basis.
319. Suspension of disbelief: The acceptance of unlikely situations in a plot so that the story can be enjoyed. The term was coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1817.
320. Synesthesia: The fusion of sensory reactions to words and texts created by juxtaposition. For example, hot pink (feeling + sight); smooth melody (touch + hearing)
321. Tabloid: A small newspaper that is roughly half the size of a standard newspaper, usually containing sensational coverage of crime, scandal, gossip, violence, or news about celebrities.
322. Talk show: A genre of radio or television program in which people discuss aspects of their lives or current issues with a host.
323. Tape: A long, narrow flexible material with magnetic properties, used for recording sound, pictures, or computer data.
324. Telecommunications: A general term for all electronic communications and transmission at a distance, over cables, wireless radio relay systems, or via satellite links.
325. Teleculture: A concept that television is a dominant influence in society, helping both mirror and shape cultural institutions, replacing books, families, and educator as primary influence in cultural transmission.
326. Telegram: A written message transmitted by using and electric device, telegraph. The message is carried along wires, and the text written or printed and delivered by hand or teleprinter.
327. Telephone: A device designed for simultaneous transmission and reception of the human voice. In 1876 the Scottish born American inventor Graham Bell patented the first telephone.
328. Telethon: A televised fundraising event that lasts many hours or even days, the purpose of which is to raise money for a charitable, political or other purportedly worthy cause.
329. Television[TV]: A telecommunication medium that is used for transmitting and receiving moving images and sound. The first home television was put on display in 1928.
330. Text: Anything constructed to express, represent, or communicate something --- speeches, poems, television programs, scientific theories, musical compositions.
331. Theater: A building, room, or outdoor area for the presentation of dramatic performances or other forms of entertainment.
332. Tragedy: A traditional theater genre, dating to ancient Greece, typically with an unhappy or disastrous ending brought on my fate or a flaw in the main character.
333. Trailer/Preview: A brief film showing snatches from an upcoming motion picture so as to entice people to see the movie.
334. Transistor: A small device that can amplify, control, and generate electrical signals, invented by Bell Labs in 1947, displacing the vacuum tube.
335. Videophone: A device that can transmit and receive audio and video, composed of a camera, receiver, and screen.
336. Virtual community: A group of people who interact on the Internet, for example in the chat rooms, because they share interests or business.
337. Web browser: A computer program allowing users to gain access to pages on the World Wide Web. For example, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox etc.
338. Web page: A computer file displayed as a "page" on a computer screen, accessible through the World Wide Web by means of a Web browser.
339. Webcam: A video camera that feed or streams its images in real time to or through a computer to computer network.
340. Wiki: The name given to a website that allows the visitors themselves to edit and change its content, sometimes without the need for registration.
341. Yahoo! An American Internet service providing a full range of web services, founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in 1994.
342. Yellow journalism: A type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.

6. RELIGION


7. HISTORY


8. PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY