Thursday, 12 May 2016

ELEMENTS OF STYLE

4. AVOID REDUNDANCIES

 "I believe more in the scissors than I do in the pencil" 
                                                                   (Truman Capote) 
     Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. Getting rid of unnecessary words will make your writing clearer and more effective. Be ready and strangle the following redundancies.
1. Redundant Adjectives
2. Redundant Adverbs
3. Redundant Nouns
4. Redundant Prepositions

1. REDUNDANT ADJECTIVES

"When you catch an adjective, kill it. No, I don't mean utterly, 
but kill most of them -- then the rest will be valuable."
(Mark Twin)
1. Actual facts
Example: Listen to the actual facts of the case.
Better: Listen to the facts of the case.
2. Advance warning
Example: The storm hit with no advance warning.
Better: The storm hit with no warning.
3. Armed gunman
Example: An armed gunman robbed the bank today.
Better: A gunman robbed the bank today.
4. Basic necessities
Example: Prepare for disasters by stocking basic necessities.
Better: Prepare for disaster by stocking necessities.
5. Current trend
Example: Some say blogging is a current trend that won't last.
Better: Some say blogging is a trend that won't last.
6. Final conclusion
Example: He came to a final conclusion that he hated his job.
Better: He came to a conclusion that he hated his job.
7. Foreign imports
Example: He believes foreign imports hurt our country's economy.
Better: He believes imports hurt our country's economy.
8. Frozen ice
Example: He fell through the frozen ice.
Better: He fell through the ice.
9. Future plans
Example: What are your future plans for college?
Better: What are your plans for college?
10. General public
Example: The portable bathrooms are for the general public.
Better: The portable bathrooms are for the public.
11. Joint collaboration
Example: The joint collaboration between state and federal agencies failed.
Better: The collaboration between state and federal agencies failed.
12. Mutual cooperation
Example: We need mutual cooperation to succeed.
Better: We need cooperation to succeed.
13. New invention
Example: The new invention would change the world.
Better: The invention would change the world.
14. Past experience
Example: My past experiences are what made me who I am today.
Better: My experiences are what made me who I am today.
15. Personal opinion
Example: It is just my personal opinion.
Better: It is just my opinion.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

2. REDUNDANT ADVERBS

"I believe the road to hell is paved with adverbs........".
                                                                                  (Stephen King, On Writing)

1. Advance forward
Example: The army advanced forward.
Better: The army advanced.
2. Assemble together
Example: Assemble together the parts included in the box.
Better: Assemble the parts included in the box.
3. Blend together
Example: The colours blend together nicely.
Better: The colours blend nicely.
4. Clench tightly
Example: He clenched his teeth tightly.
Better: He clenched his teeth. 
5. Combine together
Example: When you combine together your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
Better: When you combine your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
6. Completely destroy
Example: Aslam completely destroyed his room.
Better: Aslam destroyed his room.
7. Completely finished
Example: She completely finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
Better: She finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
8. Connect together
Example: Connect together the two wires.
Better: Connect the two wires.
9. Eradicate completely
Example: We must eradicate completely these roaches.
Better: We must eradicate these roaches.
10. May possibly
Example: She may possibly get the job.
Better: She may get the job.
11. Meet together
Example: The two roads meet together at the traffic circle.
Better: The two roads meet at the traffic circle.
12. Originally created
Example: Nobody truly knows when the world was originally created.
Better: Nobody truly knows when the world was created.
13. Personally like
Example: I personally don't like wax museums.
Better: I don't like wax museums.
14. Still persist
Example: If symptoms still persist, call you doctor.
Better: If symptoms persist, call your doctor.
15. Yell loudly
Example: He yelled loudly.
Better: He yelled.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

3. REDUNDANT NOUNS

The addition of a generic noun after a specific noun is a redundancy; it weakens the specific noun. 

1. Alternative choice
Example: He had no alternative choice but to fight.
Better: He had no alternative but to fight.
2. Ask the question 
Example: Ask the question to your teacher. 
Better: Ask your teacher.
3. Cash money
Example: She did not carry much cash money but credit cards for shopping.
Better: She did not carry much cash but credit cards for shopping. 
4. Crisis situation
Example: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis situation.
Better: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis. 
5. Emergency situation
Example: She had come prepared for such an emergency situation, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
Better: She had come prepared of such an emergency, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
6. HIV virus
Example: HIV virus infects vital cells in the human immune system.
Better: HIV infects cells in the human immune system.
7. ISBN number
Example: The ISBN number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code.
Better: The ISBN is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code
8. Later time 
Example: Call me at a later time.
Better: Call me later.
9. Means and methods
Example: He used all means and methods to get his work done.
Better: He used all methods to get his work done.
10. Parts and components
Example: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts and components of a computer.
Better: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts of a computer.
11. PIN number
Example: PIN number is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
Better: PIN is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
12. Present time
Example: He is not available at the present time.
Better: He is not available at present.
13. Source and origin
Example: The sun is the biggest source and origin of heat and light.
Better: The sun is the biggest source of heat and light.
14. Tuna fish
Example: Pregnant women who eat tuna fish can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
Better: Pregnant women who eat tuna can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
15. Use and implementation
Example: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use and implementation of it in her business.
Better: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use of it in her business.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

4. REDUNDANT PREPOSITIONS

Many English verbs are not followed by prepositions. 
1. Add up
Example: Add up your hours and see if you qualify for overtime.
Better: Add your hours and see if you qualify for overtime.
2. Ascend up
Example: Ascend up the steps to reach the top.
Better: Ascend the steps to reach the top.
3. Enter in
Example: Enter in your name and email address.
Better: Enter your name and email address.
4. Fall down
Example: If you fall down, try again.
Better: If you fall, try again.
5. Heat up
Example: Heat up the soup.
Better: Heat the soup.
6. Kneel down
Example: Kneel down before God Almighty.
Better: Kneel before God Almighty.
7. Lift up
Example: Lift up the weight.
Better: Lift the weight.
8. Penetrate into
Example: The bullet can easily penetrate into the wood.
Better: The bullet can easily penetrate the wood.
9. Plunge down
Example: The stock market plunged down today.
Better: The stock market plunged today.
10. Pouring down rain
Example: The pouring down rain ruined the picnic.
Better: The pouring rain ruined the picnic.
11. Protest against
Example: You must protest against tyranny.
Better: You must protest tyranny.
12. Raise up
Example: Raise up the flag.
Better: Raise the flag.
13. Reflect back
Example: This action reflects back his true beliefs.
Better: This action reflects his true beliefs.
14. Retreat back
Example: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat back.
Better: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat.
15. Write down
Example: Write down your name on this sheet of paper.
Better: Write you name on this sheet of paper.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

EXERCISE
Q. Revise the following sentences to eliminate redundancy. 
(i) Detective search for the true facts is an investigation. 
(ii) The consensus of opinion on the basic fundamentals created the shortest meeting of the year. 
(iii) Even though she had performed the operation a numerous number of times, she still reviewed the basic essentials each ad every day. 
(iv) The first priority appears to be to group together the children than live in close proximity to one another. 
(v) The local residents filled to capacity the new auditorium as they waited to hear the developer recount the past history of the archaeological site. 
(vi) Advance planning can avoid total destruction of a historical site. 
(vii) The accident totally severed the boy's arm. 
(viii) Physical aerobic exercise is recommended for healthy hearts. 
(ix) Modern antiques that have been made recently have been offered at high prices. 
(x) Last of all, I would like to completely finish this exercise before I go to bed. 
(xi) Although my future plans are uncertain, I intend to adhere to my basic and fundamental belief that humans were meant to be lazy. 
(xii) Astonished, the natives stared at the automobile in amazement. 
(xiii) People pay good money and spend hard-earned dollars for labour-saving devices to save time from their busy lives. 
(xiv) Mall researchers often interview and talk to many people who are respondents for their surveys. 
(xv) In a very real sense, the side effects of today's medical discoveries have created many health complications, including results that are not related to drug's purpose. 
(xvi) In point of fact, people who fail to have success in their careers frequently give up too easily and are not tenacious in sticking to their goals. 
(xvii) Thanks to their joint collaboration, the archaeologists found the handwritten manuscript in the destroyed ruins of the monastery.   
(xviii) Her handbag was square in shape. 
(xix) It is usually his custom to visit the houses of the affluent rich. 
(xx) The group wanted to climb up the very summit at the top of the mountain. 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

Wednesday, 8 April 2015

PAST PAPER ESSAY 2015

YEAR 2015
1. The War on Terror has Contributed to the Growing Abuse of Human Rights
2. Anticipation is Often Greater than Realization
3. Punctuality is Virtue of Bored
4. The Introduction of New Digital Technologies has Radically Altered Identities
5. In a Hierarchy Every Employee Tends to Rise to is Level of Incompetence
6. I Disapprove What You Say, But I Defend to Death Your Right to Say
7. Luxury Predecessors Becomes the Necessity of Successors
8. When Life Throws You Lemons, Make Lemonade
9. Govt. should eliminate subsidies and incentives for manufacturers and consumers of electric cars as they are costly and do not do enough to protect environment
10. Labor Saving Devices are More Troublesome then They Worth

Monday, 22 December 2014

44 YEARS PAST PAPERS (1971-2014)

YEAR 1971
1. Man as Part of a Design Infinitely Vaster Than Himself
2. Knowledge Demands Love as Its Complement
3. The Amusement Mania
4. The Art of Feature Films Made in Pakistan
5. Art and Religion
6. Education of Freedom
7. Brain Washing     
8. The Lessons of the Past
9. Requisites of Social Progress in Pakistan
10. How Words Change Our Lives?
11. Man Is Condemned to Be Free
12. Leaders and Followers
YEAR 1972
1. Relevance of Islam to Science
2. The Sanctity of Law
3. Competitive Results of Planned Economy
4. The Sick Soul
5. The Strategy of Political Warfare
6. "If" in History
7. Psychology and Its Social Meaning
8. Reverence for Life
9. International Morality
10. The Divided Self and the Process of Its Unification
11. Statesmen and Diplomatists
12. The Foundations of the Features
YEAR 1973
1. The Problems of Social, Economic and Political Development in the Third World
2. Sino-Soviet Differences
3. The Process of Modernization in Pakistan
4. Pakistan's New Constitution
5. Pakistan Cultural Situation
6. Iqbal's Reinterpretation of Islam
7. Solar Energy
8. Interplanetary Travel
9. Existentialism
10. Archetypes
11. Experiment in Literature
12. Man's Physiological and Psychological Relationship with Animals
YEAR 1974
1. Sino-American Relations
2. The Arabs Versus Israel
3. The Role of the Third World in the United Nations
4. The Ideology of Pakistan
5. The Process of Urbanization in Pakistan
6. Pakistan's Efforts at Attaining Self-Sufficiency in Food
7. The Influence of Western Literature
8. Aesthetic Values
9. The Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
10. Wealth in the Sea
11. The Measurement of Personality
12. Education and Internationalism
YEAR 1975
1. A New Economic Order for the World
2. Oil Politics
3. Soviet-American Detentes
4. Pakistan's Efforts at Industrialization
5. The Role of Banking in the Development of Pakistan
6. Agro-Technical Education in Pakistan
7. Urdu Literature Since 1935
8. The Symbolist Movement in Literature and the Arts
9. The Uses of Computers
10. An Evaluation of Various Theories of Psychotherapy
11. Pragmatism
12. The International Women's Year
YEAR 1977
1. Apartheid 
2. The Writer's Role in an Ideological State
3. Some Fashionable Follies of the Modern World
4. Urdu Poetry Today
5. Democracy in Pakistan
6. Profile of the Pakistani Voter
7. The Knowledge Explosion in the Modern Times
8. Our Movies and Our National Character
9. Inflation - Its Causes and Curses
10. Conscience Versus Command
11. Psychoanalysis 
12. Education for Varied Talents
YEAR 1978
1. The Nuclear Power Programme in Pakistan
2. The Social Role of a Writer
3. Religion and Science
4. Our Sweetest Songs Are Those That Tell of Saddest Thoughts
5. The Administrative Corruption and Inefficiency - Its Causes and Cures
6. Suggestions for the Improvement of Educational Standard in Pakistan
7. The Use and Abuse of Leisure
8. Psychotherapy
9. Mass Media and Opinion Formation
YEAR 1979
1. Separate Universities for Women
2. Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child
3. Dreams and Poetry
4. The Role of Democracy in a Developing Country
5. Nationalism and Super Nationalism in Our Times
6. Existentialism
7. Economic Aid and International Development
8. "If all mankind minus one were of one opinion and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing mankind". (J.S. Mill). Discuss. 
9. One Today is Worth Two Tomorrows
YEAR 1980
1. Our Cultural Heritage
2. My Proposals for a Peaceful World in the 1980s
3. Pakistan's Response to the Changing Regional Situation
4. Socio Economic Status of Women in Pakistan
5. Islam and Democracy
6. Impact of Science on Society
7. Theatre of the Absurd
YEAR 1981
1. The Influence of Religion on Civilization
2. The Dignity of Labor
3. Man is the Slave of Habit
4. Remedies for the Reconstruction of our Educational System
5. Contemporary Pakistani Literature
6. Is Knowledge - Like Virtue - Its Own Reward?
7. The Evils of Prosperity
8. Nuclear Technology and the Third World
9. Civilization is Moulded by Books
10. The Value of Architecture and Its Influence on Life
YEAR 1982
1. If Winter Comes, Can Spring Be Far Behind
2. A Living Dog is Better Than a Dead Lion
3. Role of Zakat in Society Building
4. Socio-Economic Situation in Pakistan
5. Ideological Frontiers of Pakistan and Its Preservation
6. Eradication of Corruption from Society
7. Need of Moral Standards in International Relations
8. Role of Press in the Third World
9. Necessity is the Mother of Invention
10. On Being a Pessimist
11. Values of Literature and Its Influence on Life
YEAR 1983
1. The Oil Glut and Its Implications on Balance of Power
2. Dynamic Development in Pakistan's Social Structure
3. The Institution of Ombudsman - Wafaqi Mohtasib
4. Freedom Movement and Establishment of Pakistan
5. South Asian Regional Co-operation - The Emergence of a New Bloc.
6. Human Kind Cannot Bear Very Much Reality
7. Value of Faith in a Computerized World
8. Art as a Vehicle of Social Reconstruction
9. Right of the Third World and Urgency of a New Economic Order
10. National Dynamism and Islamic Internationalism
11. Small is Beautiful
12. Industrial Development and Environmental Pollution
YEAR 1984
1. Islam as a Religion of Universal Love and Peace
2. Patriotism
3. Pakistan and the Muslim World
4. The Art of Conversation Is the Art of Hearing as Well as of Being Heard
5. Pakistan's Economic Progress During the Last Seven Years
6. Art and Morality
7. If the Poetry Comes Not as Naturally as the Leaves to a Tree It Had Better Not Come at All
8. The Ideology of Pakistan
9. Role of Sports in Character Building
10. There Is Tide in the Affairs of Men Which Taken at the Flood Leads on to the Fortune
11. All That Glitters in Not Gold
YEAR 1985
1. Purpose of Life on Earth
2. Is Democracy a Panacea of All Political and Economic Evils?
3. Drug Addiction; Its Effects, Extent and How to Combat It?
4. Dilemma of the water crisis that has hit the country in the middle of 1985, its relationship, if any, with the Indus Waters Treaty, and how to avoid it in future?
5. What are the social evils rampant in our society? Discuss them in their order of importance. How would you eradicate them? What are its implications on Pakistan's present and future?
6. Genesis of Iran-Iraq War and Its Repercussions on the Two Countries, and Its effect on the Whole Region
7. Example of the Holy Prophet Mohammad, Peace Be Upon Him, As a Perfect Human Being, Soldier and Administrator
8. Pakistan's Achievements Towards Islamisation
9. What is wrong with our educational system? Prepare a chapter for its improvement. 
10. Prepare a brief draft brochure for a foreign tourist, describing beautiful scenic spots and historical places in Pakistan. 
11. Past and Future Perspective of the Nuclear Disarmament Talks
YEAR 1986
1. Child Is the Father of Man
2. Foreign Aid - Is It a Blessing or a Curse?
3. Dismemberment of Pakistan and Its Consequences
4. Nuclear Contamination - Is the Threat Real of Imaginary?
5. Blessings and Joys of Adversity
6. Interest - Free Banking: Is it a Fact or Fiction?
7. Pakistan's Health Problems - How would you propose to solve them?
8. What do you understand by the terms Agrarian Reforms and Land Reforms? Have they been launched in Pakistan, if so, to what effect?
9. Freedom of the Press
10. We have entered the Computer Age. What are the dimensions and prospects of this modern technology?
YEAR 1987
1. Sweet are the Uses of Adversity
2. Eternal Vigilance is the Price of Liberty
3. A Thing of Beauty Is a Joy Forever
4. The Non-Aligned Movement
5. Growing Debt Problem of the Third World
6. Human Resources Development, A Pre-requisite to Technological Advancement
7. Corruption and its Distorting Effect on Social and Economic Structure
8. Muslim Ummah at the Cross-Road
9. Federalism and National Intergration
10. Prime Minister's Five-Point Program as a Blue-Print of Socio-Economic Development
11. Role of Agriculture in Our Country
12. Population Growth in Pakistan and Its Implication
YEAR 1988
1. Machines and Emotions
2. Better to Reign in Hell, Than to Serve in Heaven
3. Man Does Not Live by Bread Alone
4. What a Piece of Work is Man!
5. Campus Violence and Declining Education Standards
6. Liberation Movement and Terrorism
7. Problem of Employment Amongst the Educated Youth
8. Resource Development and Population Growth
9. Canal Irrigation, Its Contribution to Pakistan's Economy
10. Party System and Democracy
11. Role of Female Education in Social Development
12. Role of Armament Manufacturers in Destabilizing the Third World Countries
YEAR 1989
1. There is a tide in the affairs of men. Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.
2. Blow, blow, thou winter wind, Thou art not so unkind. As man's ingratitude. 
3. Prosperity is a Great Teacher, Adversity is Greater
4. Your Recipe for Economic Prosperity of Pakistan
5. Pakistan's Elections 1989; Their Effects on Country's Politics and Common Man
6. Klashnikov and Heroin Culture and Pakistan Youth
7. How can agrarian and labour reforms and check on population growth help in development of Pakistan?
8. Non-Proliferation Treaty and Pakistan
9. The Curse of Corruption in Developing Countries With Special Reference to Pakistan
10. Islam and Women
11. Is Democracy not Suited to Muslim Genius?
12. SAARC and the Role of India
YEAR 1990
1. Man Proposes and God Disposes
2. Work - The Way to Happiness
3. Sense of Humour
4. Disadvantages of Being a Gentleman
5. Popular Superstitions
6. Overcrowded Professions
7. Weather Forecasting
8. Science Without Conscience Is the Ruin of a People
9. Table Manners
10. Sports for Women - Suitable and Unsuitable
11. Is Democracy Out of Date?
12. Can We Abolish Gambling?
YEAR 1991
1. The Survival of Modern Civilization Depends Not on the Advance, But on the Distribution of Knowledge
2. Identify and discuss some of the more serious political, social and economic problems of Pakistan
3. United We Stand, Divided We Fall
4. Discuss the weakness of a national economy based mainly on the export of one or two natural products used as raw material
5. The Artist is the Leader of Civilized Society
6. The Object of Higher Education in a Developing Country
7. The Value of the Study of History
8. The Importance of Environment in the Formation of Personality
9. All Privilege Carries with Its Responsibility
10. Religious Toleration
11. The Concept  of National Sovereignty is Out of Date
12. Benevolent Despotism 
13. The Power of Imagination
YEAR 1992
1. Full many a flower is born to unseen, and waste its sweetness of the desert air. 
2. "Let there be light!", said God, "And there was light". "Let there be blood!", says man, "And there was a sea!"
3. " ... and eat and drink but be not prodigal. Lo! He loveth not the prodigal." (Al-Quran VII- 31)
4. An Un-Islamic Government May Last a While, But Tyranny Cannot Endure
5. The Eight Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan
6. Is over population a human capital to be proud of? Discuss with special reference to Pakistan. 
7. Unemployment and Pakistani Youth
8. Inflation and the Common Man. Discuss with reference to Pakistan.
9. Those Who Will Not Learn from History Shall Relieve It. 
10. I disapprove of what you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it. 
11. Procrastination is the Thief of Time
12. Resurgence of Central Asia
13. Ethnic dean-sing  of Bosnian Muslims, repression of Muslims in Occupied Kashmir and flushing out of Palestinians for a home, for the Jews are an insult to human conscience in this enlightened age of science.
YEAR 1993
1. New World Order Implications for the Third World Countries
2. Central Asia Today: Emerging Political and Economic Patterns
3. The Quality of Life Is Not Measured in Terms of Calories Alone
4. In the Quest of Happiness, Success Is Only One Ingredient and Is Often Too Dearly Purchased. 
5. The Way to Hell Is Paved With Good Intentions
6. Ideology -- A Strait-Jacket Or An Instrument of Meaningful Change
7. Human Resource - The Most Critical Factor in National Development
8. What a Piece of Wok Is Man! Says Tragedy. What a Piece of Work Indeed? Says Comedy. 
9. Democracy and Mass Illiteracy Do Not Go Together
10. Local Organisation, Decentralized Planning, and Hard Work Are the Key to Rural Development 
11. Deprivation of Social Development and Family Planning Cannot Lead to a Promising Future
12. How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth It Is to Have a Thankless Child
YEAR 1994
1. The Apparel Often Proclaims the Man
2. Cowards Die Many Times Before Their Death. The Valiant Never Taste of Death But Once
3. Not Every One in Chains Is Subdued
4. Now and Then an Innocent Man Is Sent to the Legislature
5. Hankering After the Past Is an Admission of One's Inability to Shape the Future
6. Energy: A Critical Factor in Pakistan's Economic Development
7. Social Action Program (SAP)
8. Government Sponsored Self-employment Schemes; Reality of a Political Gimmick?
9. For Democracy to Survive, Let the Press suffer No Curbs
10. Elimination of Riba from the Economy - A Commitment and a Challenge
11. ECO (Economic Co-operation Organization) an Experiment in Regional Integration
12. Afghan Peace Enigma: Implications for Pakistan
13. Pakistan's Nuclear Program: Alternative Scenarios
14. Mass Resistance in Occupied Kashmir: Options for Pakistan
YEAR 1995
1. Press Freedom and Responsibility
2. Faith Unites, Dogma Divides
3. Can Capitalism Survive Without Interest?
4. Nothing is so Self-blinding as Self-righteousness
5. Economic and Political Development Is Not Possible Without Social Transformation
6. Pakistan - Afghanistan Relations: Post-Soviet Withdrawal Phase
7. 50 Years of UN: A Critical Evaluation
8. Control of Corruption in Pakistani Society
9. Human Kind Cannot Bear Very Much of Reality
10. Prospects of Demographic Equilibrium in Pakistan Through Family-Planning
11. Plight of Women and Moves for Their Empowerment
12. Third World Poverty: Dimension and Alleviation Strategies
13. Economic Planning and Development in Third World Countries: Objectives, Problems and Prospects
14. Universe Is the Light of Modern Scientific Discoveries
YEAR 1996
1. The Greatest of Evils and the Worst of Crimes Is Poverty
2. Man Was Born Free and Every Where He Is in Chains
3. Man Gets What He Strives for (Al-Quran)
4. I Disapprove of What You Say But I Will Defend to Death Your Right to Say It. 
5. The Press and the Nation Rise and Fall Together
6. Eternal Vigilance Is the Price of Liberty
7. CTBT and Its Implications for Pakistan
8. Ravages of Flood and Their Control in Pakistan
9. Discuss the Slogan: Accountability First and Elections Later
10. The Current Economic Scenario in Pakistan
11. Is a Small Family Necessarily a Prosperous Family? Discuss critically. 
12. How can a man indulge in bribery, nepotism, injustice, extortion, deception, without batting in the field, if he believes in the Hereafter? 
13. The Present Scenario in Afghanistan Against the Backdrop of the Soviet Debacle 
14. The scourge of Sectarian Militancy and Ethnic Violence in Pakistan
15. The Causes of Female Backwardness in Pakistan and an Appraisal of the Contribution That Women Can Make to the National Development Effort
YEAR 1997
1. Pleasures of Idleness
2. None But the Brave Deserve the Fair
3. Expanding Information Technology; A Curse Or Blessing?
4. Human Development Must Be the Objective of All Other Developments
5. Muslim Perception of the West, And the Western Perception of Islam
6. Civil War in Afghanistan: Consequences for Regional Countries
7. Democracy in Pakistan Will Remain Insecure Without Strong Local Self-Government Institutions
8. Fifty Years of Pakistan: The Dreams and the Realities
9. WTO (World Trade Organization) and Its Implication for Developing Economies Like Pakistan
10. In Democracy the Voter of the Vicious and Stupid count. But Under Any Other System, They Might Be Running the Show
11. The National Economy and Its Tribulation
12. The Manner in Which It is Given Is Worth More Than the Gift
YEAR 1998
1. Pakistan as Leader of the Islamic World in 21st Century
2. The World Economic Scenario and Pakistan's Place in It
3. Danger of a Nuclear War in the Years to Come
4. Frailty Thy Name is Woman
5. The Role of Science in the Next Century
6. The United Nations: Its Triumphs and Failures Since Its Inception
7. My Philosophy of Life
8. Literature transmits incontrovertible condensed experience from generation to generation. In this way Literature becomes the living memory of a nation. 
9. History as the Biography of Great Men
10. Genius is an Infinite Capacity for Taking Pains
11. A Review of the Political and Economic Development in the World During the 20th Century
12. All Life is a Game of Power. The Object of the Game is Simple Enough to Know What You want and to Get It.
YEAR 1999
1.  And Whoso Is Saved from Narrow-Mindedness - Such Are They Who Are Successful (Al-Quran)
2. Self-Esteem
3. Is the World Ready for the Gene Age?
4. Risk of Soviet Syndrome for Pakistan
5. The Cream Rises to the Top, So Does the Scum
6. Gender Discrimination
7. The Struggle to Raise a Nation's Living Standards Is Fought First and Foremost in the Classroom
8. Piety at Public Expense
9. For Forms, of Government, Let Fools Contest; Whatever Is Administered Best Is Best
10. Renaissance in the Muslim World: Prospects and Perils
11. Most of the History Is Guessing, and the Rest Is Prejudice
12. Decay of Idealism in Pakistan
YEAR 2000
1. Good Governance and the Role of Public Servant
2. Sweet Are the Uses of Adversity
3. Hero-Worship Is the Strongest Where There Is Least Regard for Human Freedom
4. Advancement in Science and Technology Is the Gateway to the Economic Prosperity of a Country
5. The Barbarity of Ethnic Cleansing
6. Education Makes a People Easy to Lead, But Difficult to Drive, Easy to Govern, But Impossible to Enslave
7. We Never Know the Worth of Water Till the Well is Dry
8. Progressive Alleviation of Poverty in Pakistan - An Overview
9. If You Wish the Sympathy of Broad Manes, Then You Must Tell Them the Crudest and Most Stupid Things
10. Moral Standards in International Relations
11. Personal Liberty Is the Paramount Essential to Human Dignity and Human Happiness
12. The Purification of Politics Is an Iridescent Dream
YEAR 2001
1. Turn Not Thy Cheek in Scorn Towards Folk Nor Walk With Pertness in the Land. (Al-Quran)
2. Economic Prosperity of a Nation Is Directly Proportional to the Level of Literacy in It
3. Justice Delayed Is Justice Denied
4. National Integration
5. Experience Is the Name Everyone Gives to Their Mistakes
6. It Is Not Only Fine Feathers That Make Fine Birds
7. On Tolerance
8. Self-Conceit May Lead to Self Destruction
9. He Who Eats the Fruit Should at Least Plant the Seed
10. The Best Place to Find a Helping Hand Is at the End of Your Arm
11. Public Office Is a Public Trust
12. Devolution of Power in Pakistan
YEAR 2002
1. World Scenario in 21st Century and Pakistan's Role in It
2. International Crisis in Terrorism
3. Every Art Is an Imitation of Nature
4. Higher Science Education in the Developing Countries
5. Austerity as a Solution of All Our Economic Problems
6. Politics Is Perhaps the Only Profession for Which No Preparation Is Thought Necessary
7. Higher Economic Problems in Pakistan and How to Meet Them
8. A Little Philosophy Inclineth Man's Mind to Atheism; But Depth in Philosophy Bringeth Man's Minds About to Religion
9. Art and Morality
10. Of All the Needs a Book Has, the Chief Need Is That It Be Readable
11. Education Has for Its Object the Formation of Character
12. Need for Serious Planning in Technical Education in Pakistan
YEAR 2003
1. Formal and Casual Dressing Codes
2. Attitude of Indifference
3. Only the Wisest and Stupidest of Men Never Change (Kung Fu 0 Izu Confucius)
4. Dilemma of the Water and Energy Crisis in Pakistan
5. Art Critics and Reviewers
6. Young Habits Die Hard
7. Existentialism
YEAR 2004
1. Humanism
2. The End of Cheap Oil
3. All Recorder History Is Contemporaneous
4. Pluralistic Vision of Islam
5. Longing for Love
6. A Long Dispute Means That Both Parties Are Wrong
7. Modern Banking, Finance and Employment Are Part of One Single Paradigm
8. Peer Pressure
YEAR 2005
1. Strategies for the Alleviation of Poverty
2. Socio-Economic Challenges Faced by Pakistan
3. Estrangement from Our Own Culture Is Driving Us on the Verge of Collapse, Not Just Our Identity But Also Morality
4. Reforms in Examination Systems
5. Persecuted Poor Woman
6. The Search of Truth
7. Islam Versus the West
YEAR 2006
1. Truth in Short Supply
2. Liberalism
3. Humour in Urdu Literature
4. Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan
5. Personalization of Pakistani Politics
6. Global Warming
7. Nuclear Weapon Are Not Only a Great Peril, But Also a Great Hope
8. Brain, Like Hearts, Go Where They Are Appreciated
9. Lots of Folks Confuse Bad Management With Destiny
10. There Comes a Time to Put Aside Principles and Do What's Right
11. We Grown Too Old Soon and Too Late Smart  
12. Every Solution Breeds New Problems
YEAR 2007
1. The More Developed a Country, the More Leathly It is Armed
2. Higher Education as an Agent of Change
3. The Future of Mankind in Global Warming Perspective
4. The Image of Islam in the Western World and Responsibilities of the Muslim Ummah
5. A Country Is Backward Because It's People Are Backward
6. Globalization and Electronic Media
7. The Present System of Education Must Assume Some of Responsibilities of Our Failure
8. Politics Is the Art of Possible
9. Terrorism as a New Threat to the Contemporary World
10. The State of Women Rights in Pakistan
YEAR 2008
1. Moral Depravity Is the Root Cause of Poverty
2. Peace - The Essential Message of Our Religion
3. Time Management Is the Key Note of Success
4. Lack of Discipline - A National Disaster
5. Materialism Is the Death of Spirituality
6. Poetry Is the Highest Form of Expression - The Greatest Proof Is the Holy Quran
7. Dreams of Future Rely on the Work of Today
8. Can We Prevent the Third World War?
9. Global Warming - Fact or Fiction?
YEAR 2009
1. The Future of Democracy in Pakistan
2. Health Is Not a Condition of Matter, But of Mind
3. Co-education - Merits and Demerits
4. The Food Crisis: Problems, Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan
5. English as the Medium of Education in Pakistan
6. The Future of UNO, Hopes and Hurdles
7. There Is No Great Genius Without a Mixture of Madness
8. Status of Women in Islam
9. Pakistan's War on Terror and Its Impacts on Our Psyche and  Politic Socio Economic Fronts
10. Power of Media in the Modern World
YEAR 2010
1. Literature Is the Best Criticism of Life
2. Dialogue Is the Best Course to Combat Terrorism
3. Pakistan Is Rich in Natural Resources But Very Poor in Their Management
4. The UNO Has Failed to Measure up to the Demands of Its Character
5. All Humans Are Born Equal in Dignity and Rights But They Are in Shackles Everywhere
6. Why Is There No Status of the Third Gender in Pakistan?
7. Can Women Be Equal to Men in Pakistan?
8. Without Independent Truth-Finding Commission, Accountability Is Unachievable
9. Religion Has Done More Harm Than Help to Human Relations in the World
10. The World Politics Stands More Derisive Than It Was Ever Before Due to the Specific Imperialist Designs
YEAR 2011
1. Truth Is a Rare Commodity Despite the Freedom Enjoyed by the Print and Electronic Media.
2. Without Good Communication Skills, Life Becomes Impossible in the Modern World.
3. The Time We Live in Is the Winter of the World. 
4. In This Country Reason Does Not Apply to Anything. 
5. Does Pakistani Society Regard Woman as the Angel in the House or the Source of All Evils?
6. Disaster Management and Government Preparedness. 
7. Fair Play and Life, as It Is Lived, in the Land of the Pure. 
8. The Pleasure of Reading. 
9. What Are the Hurdles in Our Way to Becoming a Truly Independent State?
10. Insanity in Individual Is Something Rare But in Groups, Parties and Nations It is the Rule.
YEAR 2012
1. Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences
2. Obesity Is the Root Cause of All Diseases
3. Beggars Cannot Be Choosers
4. The United Nations in the 21st Century: Obligations and Limitations
5. Brains, Like Hearts, Go Where They Are Appreciated
6. The Emerging Power of Public Opinion
7. The Suffering Soul in the Scientific Age
8. A Critical Analysis of Education Systems in Pakistan
9. Democracy Is a Culture Rather Than a Process
10. Social and Economic Securities for Women in Pakistan
YEAR 2013
1. There Should Be Colleges and Schools Just for Men/Boys and Some Just for Women/Girls
2. Let Me Take Care of Today, Tomorrow Shall Take Care of Itself
3. The Traditional Male Role Changed in the Last 20 Years
4. Gender Equality Is a Myth
5. Meaning and Purpose of Education
6. If Gold Rust, What Shall the Iron Do
7. Country Life Is Better Than City Life
8. Free Speech Should Have Limitations
9. Not Economy But Politics Is a Key to Success
10. Modern Day Communication Via Social Networks Puts an End of True and Sincere Relationships
YEAR 2014
1. Literature as a Great Cultural Artifact
2. Language is a Fit Data for Research in Humanities and Social Sciences
3. Privatizing Higher Education-Generating Knowledge or Making More Money for the Opulent
4. Women Sportsperson as New Ambassadors of the Soft Image of Pakistan 
5. Post-Modern Ethos - A Challenge to the West
6. Look to the East for a Holistic Progress
7. Great Nations Win Without Fighting
8. Can Meaning be Fixed?
9. The Character of a Nation Can be Judged by Its Symbolic Narratives
10. Violence is the Large Refuge of the Incompetent

Tuesday, 16 December 2014

THE ART OF ESSAY WRITING

4. AVOID REDUNDANCIES

 "I believe more in the scissors than I do in the pencil" 
                                                                   (Truman Capote) 
     Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. Getting rid of unnecessary words will make your writing clearer and more effective. Be ready and strangle the following redundancies.
1. Redundant Adjectives
2. Redundant Adverbs
3. Redundant Nouns
4. Redundant Prepositions

1. REDUNDANT ADJECTIVES

"When you catch an adjective, kill it. No, I don't mean utterly, 
but kill most of them -- then the rest will be valuable."
(Mark Twin)
1. Actual facts
Example: Listen to the actual facts of the case.
Better: Listen to the facts of the case.
2. Advance warning
Example: The storm hit with no advance warning.
Better: The storm hit with no warning.
3. Armed gunman
Example: An armed gunman robbed the bank today.
Better: A gunman robbed the bank today.
4. Basic necessities
Example: Prepare for disasters by stocking basic necessities.
Better: Prepare for disaster by stocking necessities.
5. Current trend
Example: Some say blogging is a current trend that won't last.
Better: Some say blogging is a trend that won't last.
6. Final conclusion
Example: He came to a final conclusion that he hated his job.
Better: He came to a conclusion that he hated his job.
7. Foreign imports
Example: He believes foreign imports hurt our country's economy.
Better: He believes imports hurt our country's economy.
8. Frozen ice
Example: He fell through the frozen ice.
Better: He fell through the ice.
9. Future plans
Example: What are your future plans for college?
Better: What are your plans for college?
10. General public
Example: The portable bathrooms are for the general public.
Better: The portable bathrooms are for the public.
11. Joint collaboration
Example: The joint collaboration between state and federal agencies failed.
Better: The collaboration between state and federal agencies failed.
12. Mutual cooperation
Example: We need mutual cooperation to succeed.
Better: We need cooperation to succeed.
13. New invention
Example: The new invention would change the world.
Better: The invention would change the world.
14. Past experience
Example: My past experiences are what made me who I am today.
Better: My experiences are what made me who I am today.
15. Personal opinion
Example: It is just my personal opinion.
Better: It is just my opinion.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

2. REDUNDANT ADVERBS

"I believe the road to hell is paved with adverbs........".
                                                                                  (Stephen King, On Writing)

1. Advance forward
Example: The army advanced forward.
Better: The army advanced.
2. Assemble together
Example: Assemble together the parts included in the box.
Better: Assemble the parts included in the box.
3. Blend together
Example: The colours blend together nicely.
Better: The colours blend nicely.
4. Clench tightly
Example: He clenched his teeth tightly.
Better: He clenched his teeth. 
5. Combine together
Example: When you combine together your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
Better: When you combine your property with his, you will have over two hundred acres.
6. Completely destroy
Example: Aslam completely destroyed his room.
Better: Aslam destroyed his room.
7. Completely finished
Example: She completely finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
Better: She finished buttoning Destiny's dress.
8. Connect together
Example: Connect together the two wires.
Better: Connect the two wires.
9. Eradicate completely
Example: We must eradicate completely these roaches.
Better: We must eradicate these roaches.
10. May possibly
Example: She may possibly get the job.
Better: She may get the job.
11. Meet together
Example: The two roads meet together at the traffic circle.
Better: The two roads meet at the traffic circle.
12. Originally created
Example: Nobody truly knows when the world was originally created.
Better: Nobody truly knows when the world was created.
13. Personally like
Example: I personally don't like wax museums.
Better: I don't like wax museums.
14. Still persist
Example: If symptoms still persist, call you doctor.
Better: If symptoms persist, call your doctor.
15. Yell loudly
Example: He yelled loudly.
Better: He yelled.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

3. REDUNDANT NOUNS

The addition of a generic noun after a specific noun is a redundancy; it weakens the specific noun. 

1. Alternative choice
Example: He had no alternative choice but to fight.
Better: He had no alternative but to fight.
2. Ask the question 
Example: Ask the question to your teacher. 
Better: Ask your teacher.
3. Cash money
Example: She did not carry much cash money but credit cards for shopping.
Better: She did not carry much cash but credit cards for shopping. 
4. Crisis situation
Example: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis situation.
Better: Although she is very ill, she has passed the crisis. 
5. Emergency situation
Example: She had come prepared for such an emergency situation, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
Better: She had come prepared of such an emergency, but any delay might prove embarrassing.
6. HIV virus
Example: HIV virus infects vital cells in the human immune system.
Better: HIV infects cells in the human immune system.
7. ISBN number
Example: The ISBN number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code.
Better: The ISBN is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit code
8. Later time 
Example: Call me at a later time.
Better: Call me later.
9. Means and methods
Example: He used all means and methods to get his work done.
Better: He used all methods to get his work done.
10. Parts and components
Example: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts and components of a computer.
Better: CPU, keyboard, monitor and mouse are the major parts of a computer.
11. PIN number
Example: PIN number is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
Better: PIN is a numeric password shared between a user and a system.
12. Present time
Example: He is not available at the present time.
Better: He is not available at present.
13. Source and origin
Example: The sun is the biggest source and origin of heat and light.
Better: The sun is the biggest source of heat and light.
14. Tuna fish
Example: Pregnant women who eat tuna fish can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
Better: Pregnant women who eat tuna can put their unborn children at risk of developing autism.
15. Use and implementation
Example: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use and implementation of it in her business.
Better: Ayesha provided a bag of money and she made use of it in her business.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

4. REDUNDANT PREPOSITIONS

Many English verbs are not followed by prepositions. 
1. Add up
Example: Add up your hours and see if you qualify for overtime.
Better: Add your hours and see if you qualify for overtime.
2. Ascend up
Example: Ascend up the steps to reach the top.
Better: Ascend the steps to reach the top.
3. Enter in
Example: Enter in your name and email address.
Better: Enter your name and email address.
4. Fall down
Example: If you fall down, try again.
Better: If you fall, try again.
5. Heat up
Example: Heat up the soup.
Better: Heat the soup.
6. Kneel down
Example: Kneel down before God Almighty.
Better: Kneel before God Almighty.
7. Lift up
Example: Lift up the weight.
Better: Lift the weight.
8. Penetrate into
Example: The bullet can easily penetrate into the wood.
Better: The bullet can easily penetrate the wood.
9. Plunge down
Example: The stock market plunged down today.
Better: The stock market plunged today.
10. Pouring down rain
Example: The pouring down rain ruined the picnic.
Better: The pouring rain ruined the picnic.
11. Protest against
Example: You must protest against tyranny.
Better: You must protest tyranny.
12. Raise up
Example: Raise up the flag.
Better: Raise the flag.
13. Reflect back
Example: This action reflects back his true beliefs.
Better: This action reflects his true beliefs.
14. Retreat back
Example: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat back.
Better: When sea ice disappears some polar inhabitants advance, whereas others retreat.
15. Write down
Example: Write down your name on this sheet of paper.
Better: Write you name on this sheet of paper.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

EXERCISE
Q. Revise the following sentences to eliminate redundancy. 
(i) Detective search for the true facts is an investigation. 
(ii) The consensus of opinion on the basic fundamentals created the shortest meeting of the year. 
(iii) Even though she had performed the operation a numerous number of times, she still reviewed the basic essentials each ad every day. 
(iv) The first priority appears to be to group together the children than live in close proximity to one another. 
(v) The local residents filled to capacity the new auditorium as they waited to hear the developer recount the past history of the archaeological site. 
(vi) Advance planning can avoid total destruction of a historical site. 
(vii) The accident totally severed the boy's arm. 
(viii) Physical aerobic exercise is recommended for healthy hearts. 
(ix) Modern antiques that have been made recently have been offered at high prices. 
(x) Last of all, I would like to completely finish this exercise before I go to bed. 
(xi) Although my future plans are uncertain, I intend to adhere to my basic and fundamental belief that humans were meant to be lazy. 
(xii) Astonished, the natives stared at the automobile in amazement. 
(xiii) People pay good money and spend hard-earned dollars for labour-saving devices to save time from their busy lives. 
(xiv) Mall researchers often interview and talk to many people who are respondents for their surveys. 
(xv) In a very real sense, the side effects of today's medical discoveries have created many health complications, including results that are not related to drug's purpose. 
(xvi) In point of fact, people who fail to have success in their careers frequently give up too easily and are not tenacious in sticking to their goals. 
(xvii) Thanks to their joint collaboration, the archaeologists found the handwritten manuscript in the destroyed ruins of the monastery.   
(xviii) Her handbag was square in shape. 
(xix) It is usually his custom to visit the houses of the affluent rich. 
(xx) The group wanted to climb up the very summit at the top of the mountain. 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

Sunday, 26 October 2014

DON'T BE DICKENS!

5. MONITOR NOMINALIZATIONS
   
 Nominalizations eat the action verbs and drain the blood from adjectives.

     Nouns formed from other parts of speech are called nominalizations. They bog down your writing and impede clear communication. A paragraph heavily populated by nominalizations will send your reader straight to sleep. Wake them up with verb or adjective-driven sentences that are concrete, clearly structured and blissfully zombie-free.
1. Use Verb Instead of Noun
2. Use Verbs Instead of Nouns
3. Use Adjective Instead of Noun
4. Use Verb and Adjective Instead of Noun
5. Useful Nominalizations 

1. USE VERB INSTEAD OF NOUN

1. Announcement
Example: He made an announcement that he was getting married.
Better: He announced he was getting married.
2. Comparison
Example: He made a comparison between apples and oranges.
Better: He compared apples and oranges.
3. Decision
Example: He made a decision to leave.
Better: He decided to leave.
4. Definition
Example: His definition of fun was sleeping and watching television.
Better: He defined fun as sleeping and watching television.
5. Description
Example: Please give a description of the man who attacked you.
Better: Please describe the man who attacked you.
6.  Destruction
Example: The fire led to the destruction of the town.
Better: The fire destroyed the town.
7. Discussion
Example: We had a discussion concerning the proposed changes.
Better: We discussed the proposed changes.
8. Intention
Example: Our intention is to audit the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
9. Investigation
Example: The police conducted an investigation of the matter.
Better: The police investigated the matter.
10. Suggestion
Example: I offered a suggestion of a place to eat.
Better: I suggested a place to eat.
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

2. USE VERBS INSTEAD OF NOUNS

1. Analysis/Solution
Example: This paper gives an analysis of the problem and offers a solution.
Better: This paper analyzes and solves the problem.
2. Appearance/Cheers
Example: His appearance caused cheers from the crowd.
Better: He appeared and the crowd cheered.
3. Attempt/Failure
Example: His attempt at suicide was met with failure.
Better: He attempted suicide but failed.
4. Change/Thinking
Example: He needs to make a change in his thinking about relationships.
Better: He needs to change the way he thinks about relationships.
5. Definition/Resolution
Example: The team's role is to perform problem definition and resolution.
Better: The team's role is to define and resolve problems.
6. Encouragement/Success
Example: His encouragement helped my success.
Better: He encouraged me and I succeeded.
7. Expectation/Objection
Example: My expectation was that counsel would make an objection.
Better: I expected counsel to object.
8. Failure/Studying
Example: His failure was caused by not studying hard enough.
Better: He failed because he didn't study hard enough.
9. Intention/Audit
Example: Our intention is to perform an audit of the records of the program.
Better: We intend to audit the records of the program.
10. Transformation/Shock
Example: His transformation into an athlete caused shock among his peers.
Better: He transformed into an athlete and shocked his peers.
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

3. USE ADJECTIVE INSTEAD OF NOUN

1. Applicability
Example: This rule has lost its applicability.
Better: This rule is not applicable now.
2. Brilliance
Example: Not all posts achieve brilliance.
Better: Not all posts are brilliant.
3. Carelessness
Example: His carelessness in driving caused a multi-car accident.
Better: His careless driving caused a multi-car accident.
4. Cheerfulness
Example: Flowers added a note of cheerfulness to the drab room.
Better: Flowers made the drab room cheerful.
5. Difficulty
Example: This game has a high level of difficulty.
Better: This game is very difficult.
6. Ease
Example:  He thinks editing is a task you can do with ease.
Better: He thinks editing is easy.
7. Familiarity
Example: I have familiarity with those roads.
Better: I am familiar with those roads.
8. Intensity
Example: She has a high level of intensity.
Better: She is very intense.
9. Stupidity
Example: Don't show stupidity.
Better: Don't be stupid.
10. Susceptibility
Example: Susceptibility to the vanishing-ball illusion seems greater in individuals with ASD.
Better: Individuals with ASD are more susceptible to the vanishing-ball illusion.
                                                               Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

4. USE VERB AND ADJECTIVE INSTEAD OF NOUNS

1. Appreciation/Truthfulness
Example: I have had a appreciation of him because of his truthfulness.
Better: I appreciate him because he is truthful.
2. Belief/Ease
Example: It is his belief that editing can be done with ease.
Better: He believes editing is easy.
3. Carelessness/Death 
Example: Her carelessness caused his death.
Better: He died because she was careless.
4. Carelessness/Failure
Example: His carelessness caused his failure in the exams.
Better: He failed because he was careless.
5. Contempt/Ugliness
Example: She has a contempt for ugliness of things.
Better: She hates ugly things.
6. Happiness/Success 
Example: Her happiness was due to her success in the exams
Better: She was happy because she succeeded in the exams.
7. Laziness/Failure
Example: His failure was due to his laziness.
Better: He failed because he was lazy.
8. Negligence/Failure
Example: Negligence on the part of hospital workers was the reason for the failure of the kidney machine.
Better: The kidney machine failed because of negligent hospital workers.
9. Remembrance/Kindness
Example: I have a remembrance of your many kindness to me.
Better: I remember that you are very kind to me.
10. Sadness/Death
Example: The death of his friend caused his sadness.
Better: He was sad because his friend died.
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

5. USEFUL NOMINALIZATIONS 

     Not all nominalizations are bad -- indeed, some of them are necessary in good writing. Here are some occasions when you will want to use nominalization instead of a verb. 

1. Nominalizations work well as sentence transitions
(i) Electrical signals occur naturally between devices.
(ii) These occurrences happen only when the device is turned on.
2. Some nominalizations name ideas and concepts we can express only in nominalization
(i) Few issues have so divided us as abortion on demand.
(ii) A major issue in past elections was the equal rights amendment.
3. The nominalization names what would be the object of its verb
Example: I do not understand what she intends.
Better: I do not understand her intention.
4. The nominalization replaces awkward "The fact that".
Example: The fact that I denied what he accused me of impressed the jury.
Better: My denial of his accusations impressed the jury.
5. Some nominalizations are standard technical terms or a bit of insider talk
(i) Debt financing raises the rate of return on assets.
(ii) Standard deviation is a statistical measurement that sheds light on historical volatility. 
                                                                  Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)
EXERCISE

Q. De-nominalize the following sentences.
(i) We performed a review of the relevant regulations.
(ii) My recommendation is that we take this into consideration.
(iii) The design department will achieve the illustration of 100 books this year.
(iv) There was considerable erosion of the land of the farmers in the locale from the floods.
(v) The group's failure was the result of the way the chairman decided to submit his resignation.
(vi) Our expectation was to receive the data earlier.
(vii) Our expectation was to establish new tolerance levels in people.
(viii) There was an affirmative decision for program expansion.
(ix) The decision to construct a health science building was made by the university trustees.
(x) Approval is only given for projects that will have minimal impact on biodiversity values.
(xi) Upon your arrival at the premises, notify the receptionist.
(xii) The solution to the problem is to make changes to the regulations.
(xiii) The slider allows you to make an adjustment to the volume.
(xiv) The primary focus of this workshop is recent developments in computer scanning.
(xv) Before the commencement of the program, there was a brunch served for the guests.
(xvi) The importation of timber from endangered forests is a crime.
(xvii) They made a selection of the important books.
(xviii)  Scientists performed a test of the substance.
(xix) The quantification of the atoms was done.
(xx) The MS managed the measurement and identification of the proteins.
                                                             Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

Sunday, 19 October 2014

4. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF TENSES

4. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF TENSES

Tenses are an attribute of verbs that tell us about time. There are four aspects of tenses;
1. Indefinite Tenses
2. Continuous Tenses
3. Perfect Tenses
4. Perfect Continuous Tenses

1. INDEFINITE TENSES
    
  The indefinite tenses are used to describe actions but do not state
 whether the action is complete or on-going.

(a) Present Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + V1(s,es) + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We/You/They/Students write a letter. 
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha writes a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + do/does not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We/You/They/Students do not write a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha does not write a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Do/Does + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?
Examples
(i) Do I/we/you/they write a letter?
(ii) Does he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha write a letter?
(iii) Why do I/we/you/they write a letter?
(iv) When does he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha write a letter?
(b) Past Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + V2 + O + P.M.R.T.+ (MPAs).
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students wrote a letter. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + did not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. +(MPAs).
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students did not write a letter. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) Did + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?
Examples
(i) Did  I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
(ii) Why did I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter? 
(c) Future Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We shall write a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will write a letter. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We shall not write a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students/ will not write a letter. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh....) Will/Shall + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?
Examples
(i) Shall I/we write a letter?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
(iii) Why shall I/we write a letter?
(iv) When will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

2. CONTINUOUS TENSES


The continuous tenses are used to describe the actions that are on-going. 

a) Present Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + is/am/are + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I am writing a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha is writing a letter.
(iii) We/You/They/Students are writing a letter. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(i) I am not writing a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha is not writing a letter.
(iii) We/You/They/Students are not writing a letter. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Is/Am/Are + S + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Am I writing a letter?
(ii) Is he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(iii) Are we/you/they/students writing a letter?
(iv) Why am I writing a letter?
(v)  Why is he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(vi) To whom are we/you/they/students writing a letter? 
(b) Past Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + was/were + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha was writing a letter.
(ii) We/You/They/Students were writing a letter. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + was/were + not + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha was not writing a letter.
(ii) We/You/They/Students were not writing a letter. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Was/Were + S + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Was I/he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(ii) Were we/you/they/students writing a letter?
(iii) Why was I/he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(iv) When were we/you/they/students writing a letter? 
(c) Future Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will be/shall be + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/We shall be writing a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha students will be writing a letter. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + be + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/We shall not be writing a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/students will not be writing a letter. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + be +V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Shall I/we be writing a letter?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha students be writing a letter?
(iii) When shall I/we be writing a letter?
(iv) Why will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students be writing a letter? 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)

3. PERFECT TENSES


The perfect tenses are used to describe the actions that have been completed. 

(a) Present Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + has/have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has written a letter.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have written a letter. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + has/have + not + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has not written a letter.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have not written a letter. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Has/Have + S + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha written a letter?
(ii) Have I/we/you/they/students written a letter?
(iii) Why has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha written a letter?
(iv) When have I/we/you/they/students written a letter? 
(b) Past Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + had + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had written a letter before the teacher came.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + had + not + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had not written a letter before the teacher came.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Had + S + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) Had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students written a letter before the teacher came.
(ii) How much letter had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students written before the teacher came. 
(c) Future Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) I/We shall have written a letter before the teacher comes.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will have written a letter before the teacher comes. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) I/We shall not have written a letter before the teacher arrives.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will not have written a letter before the teacher comes. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) Shall I/we have written a letter before the teacher comes?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have written a letter before the teacher comes?
(iii) How much letter shall I/we have written before the teacher comes?
(iv) How many letters will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have written before the teacher comes? 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


4. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

The perfect continuous tenses are used to describe the continuation of an action, its incompleteness or interruption, and its connection to the temporal point of reference. 

(a) Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + has/have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have been writing a letter since morning. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + has/have + not + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has not been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have not been writing a letter since morning. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Has/Have + S + been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) Has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(ii) Have I/we/you/they/students been writing a letter since morning?
(iii) Where has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(iv) Why have I/we/you/they/students been writing a letter since morning? 
(b) Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + had been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had been writing a letter for twenty minutes. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + had + not + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had not been writing a letter for twenty minutes. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Had + S + been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) Had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(ii) Why had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students been writing a letter since morning? 
(c) Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) I/We shall have been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will have been writing a letter since morning. 
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) I/We shall not have been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will not have been writing a letter since morning. 
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S +  have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) Shall I/we have been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have been writing a letter since morning?
(iii) Why shall I/we have been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(iv) Where will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have been writing a letter since morning?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)


ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS LESSON
(i) S = Subject (I, We, You, He, She, It, They, Name, Names)
(ii) H.V. = Helping verb (is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall, can, could, may, might, etc)
(iii) V1 = First form of verb (go, write, eat, drink, walk, read, sleep, listen, etc)
(iv) V2 = Second form of verb (went, wrote, ate, drank, walked, read, slept, listened, etc)
(v) V3 = Third form of verb (gone, written, eaten, drunk, walked, read, slept, listened, etc)
(vi) O = Object (me, us, you, him, her, it, them, Name, Names)
(vii) P = Place (where)
(viii) M = Manner (how)
(ix) R = Reason (why)
(x) T = Time (when)
(xi) MPAs = Mid-position adverbs (usually, often, never, ultimately, probably, definitely, etc)

EXERCISE
Answer the following questions. Each answer should consist of at least ten sentences. 
(i) What do you do everyday?
(ii) What did you do yesterday?
(iii) What will you do tomorrow?
(iv) What are you doing right now?
(v) What were you doing at this time yesterday?
(vi) What will you be doing at this time tomorrow?
(vii) What have you done since morning?
(viii) What had you done before you went to sleep yesterday?
(ix) What will you have done before you go to sleep today?
(x) What have you been doing since morning?
(xi) What had you been doing since yesterday?
(xii) What will you have been doing since today?  
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar (0333-8602196)